Aim: How did the Persian Wars transform Athens into the most powerful city-state? • Do Now: • Based on our discussion from yesterday and the video we watched, would you have preferred to live in Athens or Sparta. Why?
I. The Persian Wars (490 B.C. – 479 B.C.) • Causes of the Wars • In 545 B.C., the Persian Empire conquered Ionia, the Greek city-states in Asia Minor (Turkey). 20 years later, Ionia revolted. Athens tried to help Ionia by sending them warships. • The revolt in Ionia failed. Persian ruler Darius decides to get revenge on Athens by going to war with them.
I. Athens on the Rise B. Great Battles of the Persian Wars • Battle of Marathon (490 B.C.): Darius sends 600 ships and a huge army to Greece. They land 26 miles north of Athens, at Marathon. Athenians attack and win.
Battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.): Darius’ son Xerxes launches another invasion of Greece. Sparta and Athens team up with 20 other city-states to defend Greece (Sparta leads the army, Athens leads the navy) At Thermopylae, 300 Spartans lead 7,000 Greek soldiers against 150,000 Persians. Persians win.
Battle of Salamis (480 B.C.): Athens is burned to the ground, but theAthenian navy defeats the Persians!
C. Results of the Persian Wars • Athens takes over leadership of Greece through theDelian League (defensive alliance involving 140 city-states). Athens gives members protection, gets tribute (money) in return. Athens becomes rich and powerful!