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R&D SDM 1 Software Project Management Project Scheduling and Tracking

R&D SDM 1 Software Project Management Project Scheduling and Tracking

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R&D SDM 1 Software Project Management Project Scheduling and Tracking

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  1. R&D SDM 1Software Project ManagementProject Scheduling and Tracking 2009 Theo Schouten

  2. Content What is project scheduling & tracking ? Which steps can be recognized in project scheduling? Work Breakdown Structure Techniques: CPM, Gantt Charts Examples Final remarks Book chapter 24

  3. What is project scheduling&tracking? • Scheduling: • The partitioning of the total work of a project in tasks, which deliver defined products. • The planning of those tasks in calendar time. • The allocation of resources to these tasks. • Tracking: • Following of the progress of the tasks in the course of a project. • Adapting the schedule according the latest developments. • How software projects fall behind schedule? • When a project is 80% finished, 80% of the work still has to be done.

  4. Why software is delivered late? • Unrealistic deadline established outside the team • Changing customer requirements not reflected in schedule changes • Underestimating the resources required to complete the project • Risks that were not considered when project began • Technical difficulties that have not been predicted in advance • Human difficulties that have not been predicted in advance • Miscommunication among project staff resulting in delays • Failure by project management to recognize project falling behind schedule and failure to take corrective action people, process, technology

  5. Perspectives • the end-date for the software release is set externally • the software organization is constrained to distribute effort in the prescribed time frame. • the rough chronological bounds have been discussed by the developers and customers • the end-date is best set by the developer after carefully considering how to best use the resources needed to meet the customer's needs. • negotiation process

  6. Basic principles for scheduling • Compartimentalization • decomposition of both the product and the process • the work is divided in tasks (work-breakdown structure) • each delivers (possible in combination with other tasks) a part of the product. Interdependency • minimize the dependency between tasks • which products of other tasks are needed to start a task • sequential and parallel tasks • Time allocation for each task • How much work is needed in e.g. person-days • Determine whether this will be part-time of full-time • Assign a start and completion date (not assigned yet to a person).

  7. …continued Matching total time with available resources • Are the needed resources (persons, tools, hardware) available? (not assigned yet to a person). Defining responsibilities • Every task should be the responsibility of a person. Defining outcomes of tasks • Each task should have a defined outcome. (SMART) • More than 1 of these work products may be grouped into a deliverable. Defining milestones • the milestones of the project: a moment in time on which a (group of) deliverables should be finished.

  8. Effort distribution • Use the data on the organization’s historical experience with similar projects • When such data is not available, publicly available factors can be used for guidance. • The 40-20-40 rule (a rule of thumb): • 40% front-end analysis and design • 20% coding • 40% back-end testing • Generally accepted guidelines are: • 02-03 % planning • 10-25 % requirements analysis • 20-25 % design • 15-20 % coding • 30-40 % testing and debugging

  9. Critics of 40-20-40 % rule • Some Software Engineering Managers believe that more than 40% of overall effort should be expended during Analysis and Design. • Some proponents of Agile Development Method argue that Less time should be expended on “Front-end’’ of Project Phase and that a team should move quickly to Construction Phase (Build phase).

  10. Parts and steps Project task: A task is executable and delivers a well defined work product (SMART); Work-breakdown structure: Division of the total trajectory into tasks; Deliverable Intermediate or final product delivered by a task or a number of tasks; Milestone: Date on which a deliverable should be ready; Network of dependencies of project tasks: • sequential • parallel

  11. …continued Determine which tasks are critical in the network: they determine the run time of a project; Determine what the size of the tasks are; Determine which resources are needed to execute each task; Building up of a project schedule:: dividing the tasks over time and allocating resources to tasks; Tracking of the progress of the project on basis of its schedule.

  12. Steering project Attention in this course Steer on goals Steering Committee Project Sponsor Project Steering Committee Steer on goals, milestones and deliverables Steer on Milestones, deliverables and tasks Project Manager(s) Technical Project Leader Functional/Process Groups (User Focal Points) Steer on Tasks and resources Analysts Designers programmers ….. User Group 1 User Group 2 User Group n

  13. Work-Breakdown Structure • A detailed breakdown of the product into manageable work elements. • A method for breaking down work within a project into logical steps: • Product WBS: • Work is broken down by system, subsystem, modules & the structure of the software product. • Activity WBS: • Work is broken down by activities of the project members such as management, requirements analysis, design & programming.

  14. Product WBS

  15. Activity WBS

  16. Work-breakdown structure Example Main phases of an information system based on software packets on the market. Phase 1 Develop Blueprint Phase 2 Design Information system Phase 3 Realize Information system Phase 4 Implement Information system

  17. Steps in phase 1 Development blueprint Deliverables phase 1 Blue- print 1.1. Pre- paration & Project- definition 1.2. Develop process- model current situation 1.3. Analysis current situation 1.4. Develop blueprint 1.5 Fit-analysis shortlist Packets 1.6 make principle choice 1.7. Make plan next phases Principle -choice Fit- analysis Plan phase 2

  18. Steps in phase 2 Design Information System Deliverables Phase 2 Input Phase 2 Blue- print Final choice Iterative Principle -choice Process model future sit. Preparation Execution Fit- analysis 2.2. Make simulation environment 2.3. Prototype step- through 2.4. End- report 2.5. Design interfaces + conversion 2.1. Develop simulation case Final- report Plan phase 2 Solutions for “gaps”

  19. Relation deliverables-milestones Project Goals Constraints Deliverable 1 ....... Deliverable n Milestone 1 ...... Milestone n Task 1 ....... Task n Timing, resourcing and dependencies

  20. Relation between people and effort • Putnam-Nordon-Rayleigh (PNR) curve • putting more people on a project does not decrease time linearly • people need time for communication • 4 zones in the curve for a certain defined project: • 1) it can not be completed within a certain time 2) overstaffed: completed fast, but inefficient 3) linear range: efficient staffing, man-power trade-off with time is good possible 4) understaffed: becomes also inefficient

  21. PNR Formula’s • The number of delivered lines of code L is related to effort and development time by the equation:L = P × E 1/3 t 4/3 E is development effort in person-months P is a productivity parameter that reflects various factors (typically 2,000-12,000) t is the project duration in calendar months • Rearranged to solve for development effort:E = L3/(P 3t 4)

  22. Setting up of a schedule Define deliverables and milestones; Identify tasks which belong to deliverables; Identify relations between deliverables and activities; Determine the type and size of the resources needed for a task; Allocate people to activities; Create activity networks and ‘bar charts’ (Gantt Charts).

  23. Example

  24. Activity network Insight in parallel and sequential tasks + dependencies 15 days 14/7/99 T3 15 days 8 days M1 4/8/99 T9 T1 M4 4/7/99 25/7/99 5 days 25/8/99 M3 M6 Start T6 15 days 7 days T2 20 days T11 T7 25/7/99 5/9/99 10 days M2 11/8/99 T4 T5 M8 M7 10 days 18/7/99 15 days 10 days M5 T10 25 days T12 T8 End 19/9/99

  25. Critical path 15 days 14/7/99 T3 15 days 8 days M1 4/8/99 T9 T1 M4 4/7/99 25/7/99 5 days 25/8/99 M3 M6 Start T6 15 days 7 days T2 20 days T11 T7 25/7/99 5/9/99 10 days M2 11/8/99 T4 T5 M8 M7 10 days 18/7/99 15 days 10 days M5 T10 25 days T12 T8 = Critical Path End 19/9/99

  26. Bar chart (Gantt chart) 4/7 11/7 18/7 25/7 1/8 8/8 15/8 22/8 29/8 5/9 12/9 19/9 26/9 Start T4 T1 T2 M1 T7 T3 M5 T8 M3 M2 T6 T5 M4 T9 M7 T10 M6 T11 M8 T12 End

  27. Extra time 4/7 11/7 18/7 25/7 1/8 8/8 15/8 22/8 29/8 5/9 12/9 19/9 26/9 Start T4 T1 T2 M1 T7 T3 M5 T8 M3 M2 T6 T5 M4 T9 M7 T10 M6 T11 M8 T12 End

  28. Allocation of persons to tasks and time 4/7 11/7 18/7 25/7 1/8 8/8 15/8 22/8 29/8 5/9 12/9 19/9 26/9 Frank Jan Carolien Jim Isabel T4 T8 T11 T12 T1 T3 T9 T2 T6 T10 T7 T5 Resources can influence the critial path, e.g. Frank with T8-T11

  29. Another example

  30. Gantt chart