J412/512 The U.S. Film Industry. October 1, 2013. Today’s Class. Syllabus & Assignments Introduction to Studying Film as Industry Key Themes of Class How to Define “The US Film Industry” (**Mini conference with Portland). Introduction to Studying Film as Industry. Film as…. Art Text
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J412/512 The U.S. Film Industry October 1, 2013
Today’s Class • Syllabus & Assignments • Introduction to Studying Film as Industry • Key Themes of Class • How to Define “The US Film Industry” • (**Mini conference with Portland)
Film as… • Art • Text • Ideology
Studying the Film/Media Industry:5 Levels of (Critical) Analysis • National and int’l political economy and policy • Specific industrial contexts • Particular organizations (studios, production companies, networks) • Individual productions (film or TV series) • Individual agents (body of work by director, writer or producer) Lotz, “Industry-Level Studies and Gitlin’sPrime Time,” p. 26-29
Historically speaking: Anthropological Approach HortensePowdermaker Leo Rosten
Political Economy of Film Industry • Studying film as an industry that manufactures and markets commodities • What do these commodities signify? • Analyzing the political, social and cultural implications of the process of filmmaking
Cultural Studies of Film Industry • How do media producers make culture? • What are the hierarchies in which they work? How do people work together? • What are their everyday experiences? • Key: “Look at the ways in which culture both constitutes and reflects the relationships of power” (Mayer et al., p. 2)
Commodities • Products and services that are sold in markets • Are media/film commodities different from other commodities?
Purpose of Films? **Depends on the kind of film… • Information? • Entertainment? • Public service? • Make money? • Influence?
Key Themes of Class • What is the film industry? What are its components? • What is Hollywood? Where is Hollywood? • How has the film industry changed? How has it stayed the same? • What impacts the film industry economically, politically, culturally, etc.? • How does the U.S. film industry impact other media, other countries?
Some Key Terms • Convergence • Synergy • Commercialization • Runaway production • Diversification • Vertical / horizontal integration • Globalization
What is Included? • Hollywood movies? • Made for TV movies? • Foreign films? • Independent films? • Avant garde / experimental films? • YouTube? • Amateur videos for personal use? • Porn films? • Other forms?
What is “Industry”? • North American Industry Classification System (NAICS): hierarchically categorizes various economic sectors • Motion Picture and Video Production defined by NAICS: • “This industry comprises establishments primarily engaged in producing, or producing and distributing motion pictures, videos, television programs, or television commercials” (NAICS, 2008)
51 Information (economic sector) 512 Motion Picture and Sound Recording Industries (subsector) 5121 Motion Picture and Video Industries (industry group) 51211 Motion Picture and Video Production (NAICS industry) 512110 Motion Picture and Video Production (national industry) Animated cartoon production Animated cartoon production and distribution Commercials, television, production Film studios producing films Films, motion picture production Films, motion picture production and distribution Instructional video production Motion picture and video production Motion picture and video production and distribution (etc.)
“Industry” at Regional Level • “The film and video industry is defined as all of the film and video production done by groups, firms, and self-employed individuals in Oregon for entertainment, news, advertising, and educational programming. This includes production spending and filming in Oregon by non-resident firms and individuals” (ECONorthwest, 2008, p. 4).
New York Edison Kinetoscope Parlor Vitagraph Company of America
Fort Lee, NJ Moving Pictures Studios West
Short Film: “Hollywood East” Motion Picture Set, 1912
Thursday’s Class Historical Context of Film Industry