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I R I D E is a large infrastructure for fundamental and applied physics research. Conceived as an innovative and evolutionary tool for multi-disciplinary investigations in a wide field of scientific, technological and industrial applications, it will be a high intensity “particle beams factory”. n,(p,p) e+ PWA g THz E- 3 GeV 1.5 GeV 1.5 GeV X (FEL) 2K-CRYO 2K-CRYO Based on a combination of a high duty cycle radio-frequency superconducting electron linac (SC RF LINAC) and of high energy lasers it will be able to produce a high flux of electrons, photons (from infrared to g-rays), neutrons, protons, pionsand eventually positrons, that will be available for a wide national and international scientific community interested to take profit of the most advanced particle and radiation sources.
Description of the project • Lead by Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare with the involvement of several reasearch institutions including ENEA and INFN • Timescale: start ~5 years after approval • Location: Rome area
Neutron spectra@ target Spectrum before moderation Flux after moderation (GELINA)
Existing sources in Europe F S: spallation R: reactor C: continuous spallation P=photo-production
Comparison with other sources Be(p/d,n) Photo- prod spallation IRIDE(EXPECTED)
Neutronimaging NeutronImaging (radiography and tomography) is atechniqueable to performspatial and volumetricmaps of samplesin order to studytheirmorphology 5 beamlines in Europe + 1 in construction requestedbeam time / availablebeam time = 3 / 1 500 users per year source Smallfieldofview, high res. measuring position largefieldofview, high res. meas. position The ICON beam-line at the SINQ continuousspallationneutron source http://www.psi.ch/sinq/icon/icon
NeutronScattering • Elastic, quasi-elastic and inelasticscattering • A wide range of techniquesable to determine: • lattice structure (diffraction– hard at IRIDE), • macrostructure (small angle scattering), • interfacemorphology (reflectometry) • diffusionprocesses (quasi elasticscattering), • collective and vibrationalstates of matter (inelasticscattering–notat IRIDE) • More than 100 beamlines in Europe • requestedbeam time/availablebeam time = 2 / 1 6000 users per year • 2000 Italianusers • More info:Società Italiana di Spettroscopia Neutronica (www.sisn.it) An example: HB-2A neutron powder diffractometer (ORNL, USA)
Neutron irradiation Single eventeffects(SEE) are definedasdisturbance of an activeelectronicdevicecaused by a single energeticparticle: • Upset(SEU): change in logic state, simplestexampleis a memorycell in RAM • Latchup(SEL): sharpincrease in currentresulting from turning on parasiticpnpn • Damageor burnout (SEB) of power transistor or other high voltagedevice • Functionalinterrupt (SEFI): malfunctions in more complexpartssometimesaslockup, hard error, etc
More thanneutrons IRIDE CAN PRODUCE ALSO PIONS, PROTONS AND MUONS
With the growth of the world population, the basic needs becoming more and more difficult to meet. Although there are technological solutions to many problems, all of them are based on electrical or thermal energy. In view of the limited resources of fossil fuel electricity will increase in importance and for this reason it needs substantial improvement in order to meet the future needs of the world. Neutrons probe the atomic structure and are therefore well suited to investigate materials for energy research. Furthermore, neutron can penetrate massive material easily, which allows to study complex components in-situ under technical conditions. Energy solar energy
Neutrons can see the elements and the molecules of life in a way that is not possible with X-rays For example, the data of neutron scattering are providing important structural information relevant to degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and other diseases that are associated with the deposition of insoluble fibrils in the body. Neutron techniques are being used to study drug molecules and their interactions with a variety of biological molecules and for the production of radionuclides that are used in medical diagnosis. Recently there is an increasing interest in the development of approaches whereby neutron beams can be used to target and destroy tumors and for the development of new biomaterials for dental and bone implants. Health and Life Sciences NeutronImaging (NI)
Information and Communicationtechnology Advanced technology is needed to meet the ever-growing demand for increasingly fast and small devices such as computers, mobile phones and media players. The field of spintronicsis greatly contributing to this area, thanks to neutron scattering. Neutrons techniques allow to identify the structure of organic materials for new electronic devices such as organic light-emitting diodes and electroactive polymers and to characterize the internaldetails of materials. Elastic and Quasi Elastic Neutron Scattering provides a powerful probe technique for studying the dynamics of mobile species.
Information and Communicationtechnology (ctd.) Chip Irradiation Study of the impact of neutron fluxes on performances of chips a universal industrial problem Avionics In 2001, the NASA Altair, Unmanned Air Vehicle (UAV) flew its first flight at an altitude of 100,000 feet. Designed by NASA-Dryden engineers and scientists, it is designed to fly for up to 48 hours to complete a variety of science research studies of Earth. Because of the complexity of the computer systems (called avionics) onboard, and the very high altitudes being flown, special attention had to be paid to cosmic ray showers. These particles, mostly neutrons, pass through the walls of the aircraft and can affect computer circuitry. IRIDE will allow to reproduce in few minutes the impact of cosmic ray neutrons collected in a year. Alsoapplies to IT infrastructures, motive, and medicalapplications
Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Nanotechnology is the engineering of functional systems at the molecular, or nano-scale - from 1 to 100 nm. Neutrons cover all the length scales from the Angstrom scale of the atomic structure of individual building blocks to the configuration of assembled, functional structures, making them essential tools for the elucidation of nanostructures. Neutrons have some built-in advantages compared to X-rays; namely their spin, mass, and the strong scattering cross section for the hydrogen isotope deuterium. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is used to study polymer chains growing or aggregation on nanoparticles and polymer/nanoparticle interaction, for application in materials science or medicine such as drug delivery or contrast imaging. SANS can also be used to analyse the aggregation of nanoparticles. Mechanical properties can be investigated by stess-strain Diffraction Techniques andElastic Neutron Scattering
Environment and Earth Sciences The increasing world population density, together with global urbanization and industrialization are putting a real strain on the planet and the environment. Countries need to minimize this strain and protect their environment. Neutrons can contribute to the development of clean technologies and processes. They can also provide much needed insight into Earth processes and the properties of rocks and minerals. Fightingpollution Atmospheric science Earth sciences Fightingpollution Atmospheric science Earth sciences
Heritage science All crystalline material – metal, pigments, rock, ceramics – can be analyzed by neutron diffraction. Neutrons are an invaluable tool to analyze precious archaeological objects. Neutron tomography and radiography provide information about interesting inner parts of the object NeutronTechniques Nuclear analytical techniques such as Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis(PGAA), Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) or Neutron Resonance Capture Analysis (NRCA) allow for non-destructive chemical analysis of historical artefacts, with little or no sample preparation. For archaeology and cultural heritage studies, neutron diffraction allows to quantitatively determine the crystallographic parameters and phase content of a material. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) has been used for studies on samples of different types of paper and ancient paper. These studies have yielded details of the surface morphology of cellulose fibres, the spatial distribution of water-filled pores, and the increasing dimension of water domains in cellulose as degradation occurs, and allowed for methods for the prevention of paper ageing to be developed.
Non destructivetesting Damage accumulation due to fatigue significantly reduces the safety of mechanical components of all kinds of mechanical appliances, such as, for instance, railway wheels and helicopter rotors. Neutrondiffraction allows to quantitatively determine the crystallographic parameters and phase content of a material. For bulky objects this is the only non-destructive possible imaging technique. Diffractive images of a railway wheel crack Neutronradiography/tomography allows to trace hydrogenous materials inside metallic structures with high precision. Neutron radiography of the injection nozzle of a diesel engine „Neutron Imaging, a non-destructivetool for materialtesting” (IAEA report) http://www-pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/te_1604_web.pdf