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Imperialism. What were the causes of the “new imperialism”? Why was western imperialism so successful? How did governments rule their empires?. Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region. ECONOMIC INTERESTS.

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What were the causes of the “new imperialism”?
  • Why was western imperialism so successful?
  • How did governments rule their empires?
Imperialism is the domination by one country of the political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
economic interests
  • Manufacturers wanted access to natural resources.
  • Manufacturers hoped for new markets for factory goods.
  • Colonies offered a valuable outlet for Europe’s growing population
political military interests
  • Merchant ships and naval vessels needed bases around the world.
  • Western leaders were motivated by nationalism.
social darwinism pseudo science
  • Herbert Spenser— “Survival of the fittest”
  • Johannes Blumenbach—Skin color & Shape of head
  • Many westerners viewed European races as superior to all others.
  • “Natural Selection” imperial conquest as nature’s way of improving the human species
3 ways to use imperialism
3 Ways to Use Imperialism
  • Colonies
    • Establish direct or indirect rule. Military Takeover
  • Protectorate
    • In a protectorate, local rulers were left in place but were expected to
    • follow the advice of European advisers. Puppet Ruler
    • A protectorate cost less to run than a colony and usually did not require a
    • large military presence.
    • Sphere of Influence
  • A sphere of influence is an area in which an outside power claimed exclusive investment or trading privileges. Economic Takeover
the berlin conference
The Berlin Conference
  • 1884, German Prime Minister Otto Von Bismarck opened a conference in Berlin dedicated to “the Africa problem.”
  • At the conference, European powers agreed on a set of rules governing imperial ambitions in Africa
      • The area along the Congo River was to remain under the control of Leopold II.
      • No nation could stake a claim on the continent without notifying other nations.
      • Territory could not be claimed unless it was occupied.
european domination
European Domination

Region Percentage Controlled--1900

  • Africa 90.4%
  • Polynesia 98.9%
  • Asia 56.5%
  • Australia 100.0%
  • Americas 27.2%
south africa
South Africa
  • The Dutch first arrived on the Cape of Good Hope in the late 17th century.
  • Europeans soon began to settle on the Cape, taking land and forcing the natives out.
  • The British annexed the Cape in 1815
  • Eliminated slavery (1833 to 1843)
  • Dutch farmers (Boers) left the colony
  • Moved to Transvaal and the Orange Free State 500 miles north
  • Diamonds and gold discovered
boer war 1899 1902
Boer War 1899-1902
  • The Boers laid siege to British-controlled towns
  • The British responded by sending in substantial reinforcements, who drove back the Boers
  • Dutch forces gradually weakened and conceded in 1902
  • Treaty of Vereeniging and ending the war
  • Boers accepted British sovereignty
crimean war
Crimean War
  • Fought between the Russians and the Ottomans near the Black Sea
  • Russians wanted a warm weather port
result of crimean war
Result of Crimean War
  • Russians were defeated by a coalition of British, French and Ottoman forces
  • First war to use female nurses led by Florence Nightingale
  • Also first war to have newspaper correspondence cover it
suez canal 1869
Suez Canal (1869)
  • Human-made waterway that cut through the Isthmus of Suez, connected the Red Sea to the Mediterranean
english in india
English in India
  • The British were economically involved in India since the 1600’s
  • Effect of the Industrial Revolution
    • Mass production of products
    • Need for raw materials
    • Need for new markets
  • India has it all
Set up trade in India
  • Corrupt Mogul Empire in India
    • ignores British gains
  • British East India Company soon control India
  • Export cotton from India to Britain
economic control turns political
Economic Control Turns Political
  • British East India company had an army made up of natives (Sepoys)
  • Reasons for Unrest
      • The Sepoy army was treated like 2nd class citizens
      • The natives had to use weapons that were greased with pork/cow grease (against Islam & Hindu religions)
      • The British restructured India on European lines eliminating centuries of right and privilege.
      • British missionaries tried to convert Indians to Christianity with the force of the 1813 Charter Act
  • They revolted 1857—England sent in troops to protect economic interests

Queen Victoria (reigned from 1837-1901).

India becomes the “crowned jewel of the British empire”

Victoria becomes Empress of India

Raj established direct control of India—1858

August 15, 1947- Partitioning of India & Pakistan Indian Independence Day: The termination of British rule in India prompted widespread celebration by Indians of every religious and political persuasion, and August 15 was officially declared Indian Independence Day. In the words of the Indian Ministry of External Affairs: "For the first and perhaps the only time in history, the power of a mighty global empire 'on which the sun never set', had been challenged and overcome by the moral might of a people armed only with ideals and courage."
american imperialism
American Imperialism

Commodore M.C. Perry - 1854

    • Treaty of Kanagawa
    • European powers quickly follow U.S. lead
    • Tokugawa Shogunate unable to cope with foreign contact
  • Purchase Alaska from Russia—1867 for 7.2 million
  • 1875--U.S. grants Hawaiian sugar free entry
  • 1891—Queen Liliuokalani retaliates for McKinley Tariff, attempts to reduce U.S. influence
  • 1893—American settlers (Business) pull off coup
  • 1898—Hawaii made U.S. possession
spanish american war
Spanish-American War
  • Increased global interests (Monroe Doctrine)
    • U.S. public and Congress
  • Cuban Revolution (1895-1898)
    • Yellow Journalism – Pulitzer/Hearse
    • Media pushes for war (NY Journal & World)
  • de Lome letter—called McKinley “weak”
  • USS Maine Explosion - Feb 1898
    • U.S. public outrage – Spain is blamed
  • War declared - April 1898
remember the maine
“Remember the Maine”

USS MaineHavana, Cuba 15 Feb 1898

fighting the war
Fighting the War
  • Spanish empire: Cuba, Puerto Rico, Philippines, Guam
  • Philippines: Phase I—Free from Spanish rule
  • Philippines: Phase II—Put under American rule
    • U.S. fights insurgency until 1913
  • Blockade of Santiago (1 May)
  • Amphib. landing at Daiquiri (20 Jun)
    • Theodore Roosevelt and the “Rough Riders”
  • Destruction of Cervera's fleet (3 Jul)

The “Rough Riders”

Battle of San Juan Hill, 1 Jul 1898

acquisition of empire
Acquisition of Empire
  • Fate of the Philippines was the thorniest issue at the peace negotiations
  • December 1898— Treaty of Paris
    • Cuba independent
    • U.S. takes Puerto Rico, Guam, Philippines

A shocked mandarin in Manchu robe in the back, with Queen Victoria (Great Britain), Wilhelm II (Germany), Nicholas II (Russia), Marianne (France), and an Emperor Meiji (Japan) discussing how to cut up a plate with Chine ("China" in French) written on it