İDB 408 LINGUISTIC PHILOSOPHY 2010/2011 SpringTerm Instructor: Dr. Filiz Ç. Yıldırım
What is Philosophy? • Philosophy : FromGreekterms Phileo : “I amsearching”, and Sophia: “Knowledge, wisdom” Phileosophia: “Thesearchforwisdom” • Philosophy is a criticalway of thinking: Questioning on previouslyobtainedinformation • Philosophyprovidesessentialknowledgeforreasoning on almosteverydiscussiontopic
Emergence of Philosophy • Humanbeings are curious about their existence in theuniverse. • They ask questionsabouttheuniverseandtheposition of entities in it.
Topics of PhilosophicalThought • What is thetruth? Why do we define s.t. as trueorfalse? → analytic/logicalphilosophy • Is theexistence of knowledgepossible? How do weknow? What is thesource of trueknowledge? → epistemologicphilosophy • Aretheredifferencesbetweenwrongandrightbehaviours? How do wedecidewhether a behaviour is wrongorright? What is thesource of morality? → ethicalphilosophy
Topics of PhilosophicalThought • What is reality? What is thenature of realthings? Arethereentitieswhichexistindependently of ourperception? Whataretheconcepts of time andspace? What is thenature of thought? What is to be an individual? → metaphysicalphilosophy • How can we define ‘beauty’? Whatarethedifferencesbetweenbeautifulthings? Is thenotion of ‘beauty’ relative? Arethereanyboundaries of ‘beauty’? → aestheticalphilosophy
Topics of PhilosophicalThought • What is religion? DoesGodreallyexist? Is God an assumptionarisingfromthefears of people? → teologicalphilosophy • Whatkinds of relationsaretherebetweenentities, time andspace?
DifferencesbetweenPhilosophyandScience • Theirresearchtopicsmaydiffer: • Philosophyconsiderssupernaturalelements, but sciencedoes not. • Theirmethodsaredifferent: • Philosophybasesitsconclusions on logicalanalyses, but sciencebasesthem on facts. • Philosophytakesall of theaspects of an entityintoconsideration, but scienceconsidersonlythepartswhicharerelatedtothestudysubject.
DifferencesbetweenPhilosophyandScience • Philosophybringsaboutsubjectiveconclusions, but sciencetheobjectiveones. • Sciencereachestodefiniteresults, but philosophyreachestoindefiniteresults. • Philosophicalknowledgeseekstofindthecore of an entity, but sciences do not takethisintoconsideration. • Philosophicalknowledge is common; it coversvariousfactsfromthesametype. But scienceconductsstudies on separatefacts.
Philosophy-LinguisticsConnection • Anyonewho is interested in linguisticswillcomeacrossinformationoriginatingfromphilosophy: • General philosophicalissues, conceptsandterms • Ideasoriginatingfromseperateindividualsorschools of thought
Philosophy-LinguisticsConnection • It is not surprisingtofindphilosophy in linguistics: • Linguistics has considered as a seperatefield of studyforthelasthundredyears. • Thebasis of present-daylinguisticstudies is groundedfromthephilosophicalideaswhichdatefromdecadesago. • Thebasicquestionsaboutlanguagewereoriginallyaskedbyphilosophers.
Philosophy-LinguisticsConnection • Thesephilosophy-basedquestionswereabout; • What language is, and • Whatconstitutesthenature of languageandmeaning. • Everyscholarwhoseeslanguage as thebasis of humancommunicationwillencounterthementionedquestionsaboutlanguage.
Philosophy-LinguisticsConnection • Language is an importanttoolfor a philosopher. • Thediscussions on philosophical methodologywasaboutlanguageitself in analyticphilosophy: Thiswascalled as Meta-philosophy.
AnalyticPhilosophy • There had been a greatdeal of development on analyticphilosophyandlinguisticsduring 20th century. • AnalyticPhilosophy: an approachtothesubjectsandproblems of philosophywhichrelies on detailedanalysis: • Complexnotionsarebrokendownintosmallercomponents. So, a betterunderstandingoccurs.
AnalyticPhilosophy • Earlyanalyticphilosophywasconcernedwithpropositions (Frege&Russell): • Linguisticturn has begun. • Theemergence of ‘linguisticphilosophy’ (Strawson&Austin)
ContinentalPhilosophy • Thepresent-dayliterarycriticismwasintroduced. • Rhetoricandargument had beendebated on (Foucault, Lyotard&Derrida) • The idea of a fixed, certainmeaning is rejected. • Interpretationandnegotiation on language, • Theemergence of criticaltheories
TheAnalyticApproachandThePresent-dayLinguistics • Naturallanguage is an interestingandimportantstudysubject in itsownright: • Describingnaturallanguages • Onlyassumptions can be made on naturallanguages: • Generalisationswill be controversial, • Manydifferingideasandopposingtheories
NaturalLanguage • An analyticapproachdividesnaturallanguage in threeparts: • Phonological • Semantic • Syntactic • Totallyseperateandindependentfromeachother × constitutethegrammar of thelanguage
GrammaticalRules • Grammar is generative • Twotypes of grammaticalrules: • Generativerules: deepstructures, semantics (logicalfrom) • Transformationalrules: surfacestructures, structureandwordorder
Whatcomesnext? • Similarideas in philosophy (Russell & Wittgenstein) • Thecontribution of philosophicalthinkingtothecurrentideasaboutthegrammar of naturallanguage