Hiv hepatitis herpes
Download
1 / 190

HIV, Hepatitis, Herpes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 102 Views
  • Uploaded on

HIV, Hepatitis, Herpes. Slackers Facts by Mike Ori. Disclaimer. The information represents my understanding only so errors and omissions are probably rampant. It has not been vetted or reviewed by faculty. The source is our class notes.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' HIV, Hepatitis, Herpes' - gillian-haverty


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Hiv hepatitis herpes

HIV, Hepatitis, Herpes

Slackers Facts by Mike Ori


Disclaimer
Disclaimer

The information represents my understanding only so errors and omissions are probably rampant. It has not been vetted or reviewed by faculty. The source is our class notes.

The document can mostly be used forward and backward. I tried to mark questionable stuff with (?).

If you want it to look pretty, steal some crayons and go to town.

Finally…

If you’re a gunner, buck up and do your own work.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What are the retrovirus groups


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Oncoretrovirus

Lentivirus



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Oncoretrovirus – HTLV I/II

Lentivirus – HIV I/II





Hiv hepatitis herpes

Onco = tumor

Lenti = slow





Hiv hepatitis herpes

HTLV I – Adult T-cell leukemias

HTLV II – Hairy cell leukemias



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Reverse transcriptase

Integrase

protease





Hiv hepatitis herpes

Structural genes for matrix, capsid, of viral genesnucleocapsid


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the function of the of viral genespol genes


Hiv hepatitis herpes

DNA synthesis and maintenance and protein activation. of viral genes

Protease, reverse transcriptase, integrase


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the function of the of viral genesenv genes


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Surface of viral genesglycoproteins and transmembrane proteins

GP120 and GP41


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What does HIV rev do? of viral genes



Hiv hepatitis herpes

What does HIV tat do of viral genes




Hiv hepatitis herpes

Tax and LTR.rex






Hiv hepatitis herpes

What the general mechanisms of with host cell promoters.oncogenesis


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Expression of viral genes that interfere with or cause over-expression of host proteins that lead to defective cell cycle maintenance.

Insertional mutagenesis - Insertion of viral genome into the host genome in a way that causes dysregulation.

Acute transforming viruses – incorporate a host oncogene in the viral genome.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What are the primary HIV surface over-expression of host proteins that lead to defective cell cycle maintenance.glycoproteins and what are their functions?


Hiv hepatitis herpes

GP120 – interacts with host cell receptors over-expression of host proteins that lead to defective cell cycle maintenance.

GP41 – initiates fusion of viral and host membranes


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What are CCR5 and CXCR4 over-expression of host proteins that lead to defective cell cycle maintenance.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

These are coreceptor molecules on the surface of some human cells whose binding is required in addition to GP120-->CD4


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Where are CCR5 and CXCR-4 found cells whose binding is required in addition to GP120-->CD4


Hiv hepatitis herpes

CCR5 is found in dendritic cells and macrophages in the periphery. CXCR-4 is found on CD4 T-lymphocytes


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Where is the highest concentration of HIV virus found periphery. CXCR-4 is found on CD4 T-lymphocytes


Hiv hepatitis herpes

In lymph nodes periphery. CXCR-4 is found on CD4 T-lymphocytes


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Describe why antibodies are less effective against HIV periphery. CXCR-4 is found on CD4 T-lymphocytes


Hiv hepatitis herpes

HIV infects adjacent cells during the budding process. It is not exposed to antibodies. Note that HIV proteins on the plasma membrane are targets for antibodies though.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

How does HIV reduce its exposure to cytotoxic T-cells is not exposed to antibodies. Note that HIV proteins on the plasma membrane are targets for antibodies though.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

It down-regulates MHC-I and MHC-II is not exposed to antibodies. Note that HIV proteins on the plasma membrane are targets for antibodies though.





Hiv hepatitis herpes

A, B, C, D, E, G CXCR-4?

Where is F?



Hiv hepatitis herpes

A,E – enteric CXCR-4?

B,D – Sex, blood, and rock and roll

C – Blood

G – Enteric?



Hiv hepatitis herpes

EBV CXCR-4?

CMV

VZV

Yellow fever


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What family does CXCR-4?hep A belong to?




Hiv hepatitis herpes

Transmission is ultimately fecal oral CXCR-4?

Person to person

Shellfish

Water



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Hepatitis in the late 70’s?has some symptoms we should learn to recognizeLike fever, feeling very tired and loss of appetite.Your stomach hurts, you feel real sick, you will not eat a bite.Your eyes sometimes look yellow when they only should be white.

Wash your hands after going to the bathroomWash your hands after changing baby too'Cause we don't want to spread hepatitisAnd we don't want hepatitis to catch you. Who? YOU!



Hiv hepatitis herpes

IgM titer in the late 70’s?



Hiv hepatitis herpes

14-40d in the late 70’s?




Hiv hepatitis herpes

Why does Enveloped virusHep B have a reverse transcriptase


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Hep Enveloped virus B uses RT during the viral replication process to convert whole genome RNA transcripts into DNA.








Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the epidemiology of HBV? a barrier to their efficacy.




Hiv hepatitis herpes

10-20% to sexual activity.



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Cirrhosis to sexual activity.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (200x increase)



Hiv hepatitis herpes

160 days to sexual activity.



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Anti core to sexual activity.

Anti surface

Anti E



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Anti surface (anti to sexual activity.HBsAg)


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Which to sexual activity.Ab is the first to be produced


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Anti core to sexual activity.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Which to sexual activity.Ab is next


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Anti E to sexual activity.



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Anti surface to sexual activity.



Hiv hepatitis herpes

The incubation period for HBV is very long. Hence, an early inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

For what other virus is post exposure vaccination used? inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Rabies virus inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.tx for HBV?


Hiv hepatitis herpes

IFN-alpha inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What family does Hepatitis B virus belong to? inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Hepadenaviridae inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What family does hepatitis C belong to inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Flaviviridae inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What are the other members of inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.flaviviridae?


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Yellow fever, dengue, St Louis, west inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.nile


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the chronicity for HCV? inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

85% inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the primary mode of transmission of HCV? inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Needle sharing inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What are the sequelae to HCV? inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Cirrhosis inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.

Hepatocellular carcinoma


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the structure of HCV? inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Enveloped ssRNA (+) inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is unusual about the chronicity of HCV? inoculation can prevent HBV infection from establishing even if the neonate is infected during parturition.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Chronic viruses need to have a method of genome persistence. RNA viruses (HCV=RNA) are generally considered too fragile to persist within cells (replicate or die) but HCV is able to do so through unknown mechanisms.




Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the damage. tx for HCV?


Hiv hepatitis herpes

IFN-alpha +/- damage. ribavirin







Hiv hepatitis herpes

HDV requires HBV as HDV’s genome does not encode surface antigen. Thus it is impossible to be infected with HDV unless HBV infection is present.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Describe the hepatitis that occurs with HBV/HDV antigen. Thus it is impossible to be infected with HDV unless HBV infection is present.coninfection


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Fulminant antigen. Thus it is impossible to be infected with HDV unless HBV infection is present. hepatitis. Often presents as an acute exacerbation in a chronic HBV patient.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the diagnostic test for HDV? antigen. Thus it is impossible to be infected with HDV unless HBV infection is present.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Anti-Delta antigen antibody titer antigen. Thus it is impossible to be infected with HDV unless HBV infection is present.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Describe the difference between HAV and HEV antigen. Thus it is impossible to be infected with HDV unless HBV infection is present.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

HEV is an unclassified virus similar to antigen. Thus it is impossible to be infected with HDV unless HBV infection is present.calcivirus (ssRNA (+) icosahedral). It is typically only an issue in pregnant women where it can cause fulminanthepititis. Typically found on indian subcontinent.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Why am I not describing Hepatitis G antigen. Thus it is impossible to be infected with HDV unless HBV infection is present.




Hiv hepatitis herpes

Please that’s easy… yet linked to disease.

Herpesviridae


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the morphology of yet linked to disease.herpesvirus



Hiv hepatitis herpes

List the herpes viruses yet linked to disease.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

HSV-1 yet linked to disease.

HSV-2

Varicella-zoster (VZV)

Cytomegalovirus

Epstein-barr

HHV-6

HHV-7

HHV-8



Hiv hepatitis herpes

HSV 1 is above the waist, HSV 2 is below. These are loose rules though as cross infection is known.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the tropic tissue for HSV 1/2 rules though as cross infection is known.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Skin where it causes ulcerating lesions rules though as cross infection is known.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Why do people have recurring lesions with HSV 1/2 rules though as cross infection is known.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

HSV invades the trigeminal (1) or sacral (2) nerve ganglions. It periodically reactivates and then flows down the axons to replicate in the epithelial cells.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What are the theories for HSV reactivation ganglions. It periodically reactivates and then flows down the axons to replicate in the epithelial cells.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

1. Stress and other factors cause the latent virus to begin replicating in the ganglion. The resulting virions are shed from the axon tip and then begin replication in the epithelium. 2. A low level of virus production occurs within ganglion cells and is release in a burst from the axon. These then replicate in the epithelium. (store and release)


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What are the gene classes in HSV. What are their functions? replicating in the ganglion. The resulting


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Alpha – immediate early, regulatory replicating in the ganglion. The resulting

Beta – early, genome replication

Gamma – Late, structural


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is the role of the LAT1 gene in replicating in the ganglion. The resulting maintianing HSV latency.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

LAT1 transcripts are antisense to alpha-0. This blocks the action of alpha-0.

Thus neither can live while the other survives.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Where does HSV assembly occur action of alpha-0.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

In the nucleus action of alpha-0.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Where does HSV bud from action of alpha-0.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

The nucleus into the ER action of alpha-0.



Hiv hepatitis herpes

The inner membrane of the ER. action of alpha-0.



Hiv hepatitis herpes

By exocytosis action of alpha-0.



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Keratoconjunctivitis action of alpha-0. leading to corneal ulceration



Hiv hepatitis herpes

It is a circular action of alpha-0.extrachomasomal element



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Acyclovir action of alpha-0.

Foscarnet if resistant



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Incubation for 14 days action of alpha-0.

Recovery in 2 weeks


Hiv hepatitis herpes

What is shingles action of alpha-0.



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Describe the VZV vaccine action of alpha-0.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Live attenuated action of alpha-0.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Describe CMV clinical disease action of alpha-0.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Normally no action of alpha-0.sx except in immunocompromised where it can have sx of pneumonia.

Can cause mono.



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Nuclear and cytoplasmic inclusion bodies with owl’s action of alpha-0.eye appearance. Giant cell formation.



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Blueberry muffin babies action of alpha-0.

Hearing loss, retardation, hepatosplenomegally



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Infectious mononucleosis action of alpha-0.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

Distinguish EBV and CMV mono action of alpha-0.


Hiv hepatitis herpes

EBV is mono-spot positive action of alpha-0.

CMV is mono-spot negative



Hiv hepatitis herpes

EBV elicits action of alpha-0.heterophile antibodies against sheep RBC.



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Burkitt’s action of alpha-0. lymphoma in africaand nasopharyngeal carcinoma in asia



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Roseola action of alpha-0.infantum

Many other agents cause as well



Hiv hepatitis herpes

Kaposi’s sarcoma action of alpha-0.