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Substitution Infractions. July 19, 2004 John Hoffmann referee@bellsouth.net (321) 676-2844. 2004 NFHS Football Rules - Points of Emphasis.

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substitution infractions

Substitution Infractions

July 19, 2004

John Hoffmann

referee@bellsouth.net

(321) 676-2844

2004 nfhs football rules points of emphasis
2004 NFHS Football Rules - Points of Emphasis
  • The committee annually adopts points of emphasis to make players, coaches and officials aware of specific areas that need attention. (See pages 72-74 in the 2004 NFHS Football Rule Book)
  • The emphasis of substitution and participation is related to the proliferation of specialty players and specialty situations within games.
  • “The number of players entering and exiting the playing area on any given down should not confuse either the opponents or officials,” said Ronnie Matthews, chair of the NFHS Football Rules Committee. “While deception is part of football, the rules committee does not believe this rule or any rule should create a situation where the offense, defense or officials are confused or distracted.”
definitions
Definitions
  • Player [2-30-1]
    • A player is one of the 22 team members who is designated to start either half of the game or who subsequently replaces another player. A player continues to be a player until a substitute enters the field and indicates to the player that he is replaced, or when the substitute otherwise becomes a player.
  • Replaced Player [2-30-12]
    • A replaced player is one who has been notified by a substitute that he is to leave the field. A player is also replaced when the entering substitute becomes a player.
definitions4
Definitions
  • Substitute [2-30-15]
    • A substitute is a team member who may replace a player or fill a player vacancy. A substitute becomes a player when he enters the field and communicates with a teammate or an official, enters the huddle, is positioned in a formation or participates in the play. An entering substitute is not considered to be a player for encroachment restrictions until he is on his team’s side of the neutral zone. A team member entering the field to fill a player vacancy remains a substitute until he is on his team’s side of the neutral zone.
  • Nonplayer [2-30-10]
    • A nonplayer is a coach, trainer, other attendant, a substitute or a replaced player who does not participate by touching the ball, hindering an opponent or influencing the play.
player designations state diagram
Player Designations State Diagram

Enters field,

communicates

with a teammate

or official

Notified by a

substitute that

he is to leave

Player

Is positioned

in a formation

Entering

substitute

becomes

a player

Enters the

huddle

Substitute

Replaced

Player

Participates

in the play

more definitions
More Definitions
  • Encroachment [2-8]
    • For the purposes of enforcing encroachment restrictions, an entering substitute is not considered to be a player until he is on his team’s side of the neutral zone.
  • Unsportsmanlike conduct by nonplayers [9-8-3]
    • A nonplayer shall not be outside his team box unless to become a player or to return as a replaced player.
rule 3 7 substitutions
Rule 3-7: Substitutions
  • Art. 1… No substitute shall enter during a down.
  • Art. 2… Between downs any number of eligible substitutes may replace players. Replaced players shall leave the field immediately.
  • Art. 3… A replaced player or substitute who has been unable to complete the substitution, is required to leave the field at the side on which his team box is located and go directly to his team box.
  • Art. 4… During the same dead ball interval, no substitute shall become a player and then withdraw and no player shall withdraw and re-enter as a substitute unless a penalty is accepted, a dead ball foul occurs, there is a charged time-out or the period ends.
  • Art. 5… During a down a replaced player or substitute who attempts unsuccessfully to leave the field and who does not participate in or affect the play, constitutes an illegal substitution.
  • Art. 6… An entering substitute shall be on his team’s side of the neutral zone when the ball is snapped or free kicked.
delayed departure
Delayed Departure
  • If either team has more than 11 players on the field, there are times when the infraction is a dead-ball foul (illegal substitution) and others when it is a live ball foul (illegal participation).
    • The difference is a matter of recognition by the officials.
  • By rule, a “replaced player must leave the field immediately.”
    • By interpretation, “immediately” means 3-5 seconds.
  • If you count more than 11 offensive players with the snap imminent
    • Blow the whistle and throw the flag to keep the ball dead.
  • If the defense has more than 11 player, some associations instruct officials to wait for the snap to be imminent before blowing the whistle.
    • This gives the defense the fullest opportunity to correct the oversight before incurring a foul. This also aids in maintaining game flow.
    • Try not to allow the ball to be snapped if you detect more than 11.
unsuccessful departure
Unsuccessful Departure
  • If either team has more than 11 players on the field, there are times when the infraction is a dead-ball foul (illegal substitution) and others when it is a live ball foul (illegal substitution).
    • The difference is a matter of recognition by the officials.
  • If you don’t catch it in time, and the snap occurs
    • Throw the flag and allow the play to continue.
    • This might be illegal substitution or illegal participation but depends on what the extra player(s) was doing.
    • If the extra player(s) draws coverage or otherwise participates, it is a live-ball foul for illegal participation.
    • Otherwise, this is a live-ball foul for illegal substitution.
    • Basic spot is the previous spot (foul simultaneous with the snap).
leaving on wrong sideline
Leaving on Wrong Sideline
  • Another requirement is that the departing substitute must leave the field on his own sideline and go directly to his team box.
  • Leaving on the opponent’s sideline or over the end line is a foul.
  • Only replaced players (or substitutes unable to complete the substitution) are restricted from leaving over the end line or opponent’s sideline.
    • For example, a team with 11 players gets confused thinking they have too many on the field. One of the 11 players could legally leave the field just before the snap over the end line and immediately return to his bench.
substitute on opponent s side of neutral zone
Substitute on Opponent’s Side of Neutral Zone
  • A team member who is entering the field to fill a player vacancy must be on his team’s side of the neutral zone prior to the snap.
  • If the snap occurs while such a team member is on his opponent’s side of the neutral zone, he is considered to be a substitute, not a player.
  • If he participates in any way by hindering an opponent, drawing coverage or touching the ball, it is a live-ball foul for illegal participation.
  • Otherwise, it is a live-ball foul for illegal substitution where the basic spot is the previous spot (foul simultaneous with the snap).
  • Encroachment restrictions apply only to players and not to substitutes or replaced players.
    • While an entering substitute becomes a player when he communicates with a teammate, he is not considered a player for encroachment restrictions until he crosses to his team’s side of the neutral zone.
substitute enters then withdraws
Substitute Enters Then Withdraws
  • If a substitute enters, becomes a player and then withdraws during the same dead-ball interval it is a foul.
  • The withdrawal is legal if…
    • a penalty is accepted
    • there is a dead ball foul
    • there is a charged timeout
    • the period ends
  • This rule was adopted to require a “messenger” who brings a play to the huddle to play at least one down.
  • Be especially careful and mindful of activity “during” a charged time-out. Don’t let your guard down because once it is called, the normal substitution rules apply. A time-out is not an “all free” substitution period.
player withdraws then re enters
Player Withdraws Then Re-Enters
  • If a player withdraws and then re-enters during the same dead-ball interval it is a foul.
  • The re-entry is legal if…
    • a penalty is accepted
    • there is a dead ball foul
    • there is a charged timeout
    • the period ends
  • During a dead ball, a player who mistakenly returns to his team box, realizes he is supposed to stay in the game, and returns to the field does not commit a foul since he continues to be a player until a substitute enters the field.
    • See 2003 NFHS Interpretations Situation 4 and Rule 9-5-1f
entering during a down
Entering During a Down
  • When a substitute enters the field during the down, but does not participate in or influence the play, it is a substitution infraction.
  • If he participates, draws coverage or influences the play, it is illegal participation.
  • I have never seen this in a real game.
    • Exception: Dan Higgins sent extra K players in during the free kick exercise of our 2000 MCOA field clinic at Eau Gallie High School.
  • My favorite foul for complicated enforcement scenarios.
    • Live-ball, nonplayer foul.
    • Can’t be paired with another live-ball foul to produce a double foul or multiple foul.
    • Basic spot for enforcement is the succeeding spot.
miscellaneous substitution topics
Miscellaneous Substitution Topics
  • After the ball is ready for play, each player of A must have been, momentarily, within 15 yards of the ball before the snap. [7-2-1]
    • This is particularly important for late substitutions by team A.
  • A time-out occurs when an apparently injured player is discovered by an official. The player shall be replaced for at least one down, unless the halftime or overtime intermission occurs. [3-5-10a]
    • Currently, there is no option to “buy back in” with a charged time-out.
    • Any replacement player may take the injured player’s place.
  • It is illegal participation to use a player, replaced player or substitute in a substitution or pretended substitution to deceive opponents at or immediately before the snap or free kick. [9-6-4c]
  • It is illegal participation for a disqualified player to re-enter the game. [9-6-4e]
    • A disqualified player cannot become a substitute later in a game.
references
References
  • Demetriou, George, and Redding, Rogers. “Official’s Study Guide to NFHS Football Rules”, Double S Distributors, 2002 Edition.
  • Diehl, Jerry. “NFHS Football Rule Book”, 2004 Edition
  • Diehl, Jerry. “NFHS Football Case Book”, 2004 Edition
  • Diehl, Jerry. “NFHS Football Simplified & Illustrated”, 2004 Edition
  • Howard, Judson. “Danger: Sub Sighting.” Referee Magazine, February 2004, Pages 70-72.
  • Pressman, Mike. “How to call the game.” 1984 Edition
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