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Cell Chemistry (III). Functional Groups Polysaccharides Lipids. KNOW & Be Able to Identify These Functional Groups. Polysaccharides. Examples of polysaccharides Glycogen: In animal cells (meats) Starch: In plant cells Cellulose: In plant cells Composition of polysaccharides

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Cell Chemistry (III)


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cell chemistry iii

Cell Chemistry (III)

Functional Groups

Polysaccharides

Lipids

polysaccharides
Polysaccharides
  • Examples of polysaccharides
    • Glycogen: In animal cells (meats)
    • Starch: In plant cells
    • Cellulose: In plant cells
  • Composition of polysaccharides
    • Glucoses (several) joined by covalent bonds
  • Polysaccharides are POLYMERS of Glucose
    • The bonds between the many glucose molecules are synthesized by a type of chemical reaction called --- ???
    • These bonds can be broken by a type of chemical reaction called --- ???
significance of polysaccharides in physiology i
Significance of Polysaccharides in Physiology (I)
  • Polysaccharides function as stored fuel, in both plant cells and animal cells.
  • Any excess fuel that is not burned (or --- ?? is stored, first, in the form of glycogen, a polysaccharide, and then in the form of triglycerides (or neutral fats) in adipocytes.
  • In humans, the organs and tissues rich in glycogen are: Liver cells (Hepatocytes) and muscle cells
  • In animal cells, there is a limit to the amount of glycogen that can be stored by ---? and ---? When the glycogen storage capacity is filled, all additional fuels are metabolized to triglycerides and stored in fat cells, also called --- ?
significance of polysaccharides in physiology ii
Significance of Polysaccharides in Physiology (II)
  • What is the advantage of storing fuel?
    • When monosaccharides are not available (as in hours after a meal or during fasting), the cells can --- ?? the polysaccharides/oligosaccharides of the disaccharides to get the monosaccharides.
  • Fill-in blank spaces with correct term
    • Polysaccharide --??-- Monosaccharides
    • Glycogen --?? ???
    • What happens to Cellulose consumed by humans and animals? Can cells burn or --- ?? polysaccharides?
lipids
LIPIDS
  • Fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, steroids and eicosanoids are all examples of lipids.
  • Significance of lipids:
    • They function as fuels, stored fuel, structural components of cell membranes and hormones.
fatty acids
Fatty Acids
  • Chemistry
    • Contain even # of C atoms
    • Most contain 16 to 20 C atom
      • Examples: Palmitate (C16), Stearate (C18) Oleate (C18, 1db)
    • Contain a carboxyl group at one end
  • May be classified as:
    • 1) Saturated (meaning??)
    • 2) Unsaturated (meaning ??)
  • Property:
    • Characterized as amphipathic, meaning that one small region is ---? While the other region is ---??
significance of free fatty acids
Significance of Free Fatty Acids
  • Free fatty acids (FFAs) are, with Glycerol, building blocks of triglycerides (or fats)
    • Margarine is a significant dietary source of FFAs
  • Using dehydration synthesis reaction (or condensation reaction), cells covalently bind three free fatty acids (FFA), one to each C atom of glycerol.
  • Illustrated in next slide
triglyceride composition synthesis
Triglyceride Composition & Synthesis
  • As illustrated in previous slide, a triglyceride consists of:
    • Three FFA covalently bonded to
    • One Glycerol
  • The FAs are covalently linked by a chemical reaction called ---?
  • Their chemical property: Hydrophobic
significance of triglycerides in physiology
Significance of Triglycerides in Physiology
  • Triglycerides are “stored fuel”. When hepatocytes and muscle cells can no longer store glycogen, the excess fuel is stored as triglycerides in cells called adipocytes.
  • Adipocytes form a type of connective tissue called adipose tissue.
  • There is no limit to the amount of triglyceride that can be stored by this tissue
you should be able to
YOU Should be able to
  • Draw the chemical structure of a FFA
  • Be able to tell the difference between saturated and unsaturated FFA
  • Questions
    • Complete hydrolysis of a triglyceride yields what product/ or products?
    • Complete oxidation of a FFA by cellular respiration yields what product or products?
triglycerides or triacylglycerols
Triglycerides or triacylglycerols
  • They are commonly known as fats
  • In humans and other vertebrates triglycerides are stored in adipocytes.
  • Adipocytes are cells that form a type of connective tissue called adipose tissue
  • When ---?? storage capacity of --?? and --?? is reached, all excess fuel is stored as triglycerides
remember that
Remember that:
  • Preferred fuels: Monosaccharides
  • When not immediately available cells hydrolyze polys to get monos
  • When no more monos are available cells start using free fatty acids (FFA).
    • Fill-in the blank spaces with correct term
    • To get FFAs, cells must --- triglycerides to --- + ---??
significance of phospholipids in physiology
Significance of phospholipids in physiology
  • They are structural components of all cell membranes
  • The plasma membrane (PM), the ER, the membranes around the mitochondria and the lysosomes are composed of a phopholipid bilayer (plus cholesterol and proteins)
  • Phospholipids are amphipathic
phospholipids chemistry
Phospholipids:Chemistry
  • Property: Amphipathic
  • Composition
    • Glycerol
    • 2 fatty acids
    • Phosphate group
    • “X” group attached to phosphate
  • Phospholipids are structurally closest to what other lipid ---??
steroids

Steroids

Cholesterol

Androgens (i.e., testosterone)

Estrogens (i.e.,

Glucocorticoids (i.e.,

Mineralocorticoids

(like Aldosterone)

Vitamin D

significance of steroids in physiology
Significance of Steroids in Physiology
  • Cholesterol is the classic example of a steroid
  • It is the starting material for synthesis of androgens-(male hormones), estrogens (female hormones), glucocorticoids, bile acids, bile salts and Vit. D
  • Chemical property: Amphipathic
some questions
Some Questions ??
  • Assume that this is a gene: ….-5’-ATGCAATCAGTC-….
  • What is the sequence of the complementary strand?
  • These two strands would be joined by what bonds

…Assume that the 3-’strand is the gene.

  • What is the sequence of the mRNA from that gene?
  • How many codons are there in that mRNA?
    • Write each codon on a separate line in your notes
  • What would be the corresponding seqence of the anticodons?
  • Which RNA has anticodons?
  • According to the genetic code, what is the AAS of the peptide from that gene?
the end

The end

Functional groups

Polysaccharides

Lipids