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ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY :. Study of psychological disorders. DEFINING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR:. Difficult to define due to situation/culture/time 4 COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF ABNORMALITY: 1. Maladaptive : affects ability to live everyday 2. Disturbing : to person and others

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ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY :


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  1. ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY: Study of psychological disorders

  2. DEFINING ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR: Difficult to define due to situation/culture/time 4 COMMON CHARACTERISTICS OF ABNORMALITY: 1. Maladaptive: affects ability to live everyday 2. Disturbing: to person and others 3. Unusual: not shared by many people 4. Irrational: it doesn’t make sense to the average person

  3. INSANITY: Legal term, not a psychological one -not guilty and can’t be held responsible for actions because of a mental illness-rare http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A-Block_at_Alcatraz_(2206096229).jpg

  4. CAUSES OF DISORDERS: -each psychological perspective has a different point of view -Biological: genetic, chemical imbalances, brain structure -Psychodynamic: unconscious repression -Behavioral: learning-normal or abnormal -Cognitive: maladaptive, illogical thinking -Humanistic: poor self-esteem, self-concept

  5. BIOPSYCHOSOCIAL MODEL: Combines biological, psychological, and sociocultural and they interact with one another to cause disorders Mental illness=a combination of the 3

  6. DIAGNOSING DISORDERS: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR)-2000 -American Psychiatric Association -handbook to diagnose disorders -diagnosis based on symptoms -about 250 disorders http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/d/db/DSM-IV-TR.jpg

  7. DSM AXIS SYSTEM: Assess a person on all 5 axes:

  8. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY: Purpose is to provide consistency and accuracy to diagnosing of disorders-controversial -no tests prove disorder-like cancer/diabetes -Labeling creates some consistency, but also stigma -once have one, creates preconceived bias in others and self David Rosehan Study: pretend to hear voices, when hospitalized, stopped pretending, but still seen as ill by hospital staff

  9. TYPES OF DISORDERS: CATEGORIES TO BE DISCUSSED: -Anxiety disorders -Somatoform disorders -Dissociative disorders -Affective disorders -Schizophrenic disorders -Personality disorders -Developmental disorders

  10. ANXIETY DISORDERS: Excessive or unrealistic anxiety http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/ed/Nervous.jpg/640px-Nervous.jpg -tension, agitation, apprehension, sweating, muscle tension, increased heart rate and blood pressure, worry, distractibility, rumination

  11. OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE DISORDER (OCD): http://commons.wikimed: ritualistic behaviors ia.org/wiki/File:OCD_handwash.jpg Obsession: persistent, unwanted thoughts Compulsion: ritualistic behaviors performed repeatedly, done to reduce anxiety created by obsessions

  12. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD): http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Signs_and_Symptoms_of_Anxiety,_Wikiversity_Motivation_and_emotion,_Slide_3.jpg

  13. PHOBIAS: Irrational, intense fear of specific stimuli that causes a compelling desire to avoid that stimuli Common phobias: agoraphobia: public spaces arachnophobia: spiders acrophobia: heights claustrophobia: tight spaces social phobia: embarrassing self in social situation http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spider-phobia.jpg

  14. OTHER ANXIETY DISORDERS: PANIC DISORDER: repeated attacks of intense anxiety with no apparent cause and can happen at any time. -can last minutes or hours -associated with agoraphobia GENERALIZED ANXIETY DISORDER: less intense but persistent (at least 6 months) anxiety -no specific situation, difficulty concentrating and sleeping, irritability

  15. SOMATOFORM DISORDERS: Physical symptoms caused by psychological problems, and cannot have a physiological cause CONVERSION DISORDER: loss of bodily function, blind or deaf or paralyzed, without any physical damage-patient indifferent HYPOCHONDRIASIS: unrealistic interpretation of physical symptoms as a serious illness

  16. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDERS: Involves a break in consciousness, memory or a person’s sense of identity DISSOCIATIVE AMNESIA: loss of memory -must be psychological/not physical in cause -traumatic event DISSOCIATIVE FUGUE: loss of personal memory, flight from home, and establish new identity -caused usually by major stress, or immediate danger of embarrassing news

  17. DISSOCIATIVE IDENTITY DISORDER: 2 or more distinct personalities are present in the same individual each with their own memories, behaviors and relationships -most common with severe childhood abuse -controversial-many don’t believe it is real http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/Dr_Jekyll_and_Mr_Hyde_poster_edit2.jpg

  18. AFFECTIVE (MOOD) DISORDERS: Inappropriate or extreme moods DYSTHYMIC DISORDER: mild depression that lasts for 2 years or more SEASONAL AFFECTIVE DISORDER (SAD): type of depression that reoccurs usually during the winter months-treated with light therapy http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b8/Mood_dice.svg/640px-Mood_dice.svg.png

  19. MAJOR DEPRESSION: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sadness_2.jpg Intensely sad, hopeless, reduced energy, change in sleeping and eating patterns, suicidal thoughts - “common cold of disorders” - 2x more women than men

  20. BIPOLAR DISORDER: Mood swings alternating between periods of depression and mania (inflated ego, excessive energy, impulsivity, little need for sleep, euphoria) http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Britney_Spears_at_VMA_2011.png http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Robert_Downey_Jr-2008.JPG http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DMX.rapper.jpg

  21. SCHIZOPHRENIA: Loss of contact with reality and distorted thinking (psychosis) -onset of disorder is young adulthood Positive symptoms: (symptom added by disease) hallucinations(false sensory perceptions), delusions(false beliefs) Negative symptoms: (things lost because of disease) flat affect (no emotion), social withdrawal, apathy, lack of communication

  22. TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA: DISORGANIZED SCHIZOPHRENIA: incoherent speech, inappropriate mood, delusions, childlike behavior PARANOID SCHIZOPHRENIA: delusions of grandeur, persecution CATATONIC SCHIZOPHRENIA: disordered movement patterns, sometimes immobility in odd positions UNDIFFERENTIATED SCHIZOPHRENIA: doesn’t fit into any other category but have thought/behavior disturbances

  23. PERSONALITY DISORDERS: Longstanding, maladaptive thought and behavior patterns -part of personality, affects all aspects of life -Axis II disorders 3 types: 1.Odd/eccentric: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal 2. Dramatic/emotionally problematic: histrionic, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial 3. Chronic fearfulness: avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive

  24. TYPES OF PERSONALITY DISORDERS:

  25. DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS: Disorders of infancy, childhood and adolescence ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER: (ADHD) unable to focus attention, easily distracted, impulsive -10x more frequent in boys EATING DISORDERS: -Anorexia: 85% of body weight, not eating -Bulimia: binge and purge

  26. AUTISM SPECTRUM DISORDERS: Lack of responsiveness to others, impairment in communication, limited activities and interests, repetitive behaviors -evident early-usually by 2-3 years old -range from severe to mild symptoms -1/88 kids are diagnosed with an ASD -3-4x more likely in boys http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autism_awareness_ribbon-20051114.png