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Education

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Education

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  1. Education Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  2. Education vs. Schooling Education–The social institution through which society provides its members with important knowledge, including basic facts, job skills, and cultural norms and values Schooling–Formal instruction under the direction of specially trained teachers Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  3. Schooling and Economic Development • India • Most poor families depend on children’s earnings. • Many Indians see less reason to educate girls. • Japan • Produces high achievers, and students take difficult exams • Only half of high school graduates enter college. Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  4. Schooling and Economic Development • Great Britain • Most attend state schools; wealthy attend elite schools. • College admission linked to entrance exams. • The United States • Equal opportunity and practical learning. Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  5. Functions of Schooling • Socialization • Primary schooling: Basic language and mathematical skills • Secondary schooling: Expansion of basic skills to include cultural values and norms • Cultural innovation • Educational systems create as well as transmit culture • Social integration • Brings a diverse nation together • Social placement • The enhancement of meritocracy Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  6. Latent Functions of Schooling • Schools as child-care providers • Engages young people at a time in their lives when jobs are not plentiful • Sets the stage for establishing relationships & networks • Link between particular schools and career opportunities Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  7. Critical Analysis • Functionalist approach overlooks that the quality of schooling is far greater for some than for others. • US educational system reproduces the class structure in each generation • System transforms privilege into personal worthiness and social disadvantage into personal deficiency Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  8. Schooling and Social Inequality • Social control • Schooling reinforces the status quo. • Bowles & Gintis: The 19th-century rise of public education came when factory owners needed obedient, disciplined workers. • Standardized testing • Biased based on race, ethnicity, or class? Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  9. Schooling and Social Inequality • School tracking • Tracking–Assigning students to different types of educational programs • Disadvantaged students typically end up in lower tracks. • School inequality • Public vs. private schools • Even public schools are not all the same. Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical Analysis • Social-conflict approach minimizes the extent to which schooling enhances upward social mobility for talented men and women from all backgrounds. • Today’s college curricula (including sociology courses) challenges social inequity on many fronts. Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  11. Access to Higher Education • Money is largest stumbling block to higher education. • Family income is still best predictor for college attendance. • On average, a person with a college degree will add almost $1 million to his or her lifetime earnings. • Those with the most schooling are likely to come from relatively well-off families to begin with. Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  12. Expanding Higher Education • The government makes money available to help certain categories of people pay for college. • Community colleges • Low tuition • Special importance for minorities • Attract students from abroad • Faculty focuses on teaching Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  13. Problems in Schools • Discipline and violence • Many believe schools need to teach discipline because it isn’t addressed within the home setting. • Students and teachers are assaulted. • Weapons are brought to school. • Society’s problems spill into schools. • Student passivity • Many students are bored. Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  14. Bureaucracy • Rigid uniformity • Insensitive to cultural character of community • Numerical ratings • Success defined in terms of numbers on test scores • Rigid expectations • Age and grade-level expectations • Specialization • Many courses, many teachers; no one teacher knows a student • Little individual responsibility • Students not encouraged to learn on their own Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  15. College: The Silent Classroom • Passivity is also common among college and university students. • Karp and Yoels: Most students think classroom passivity is their fault. • Students find little value in classroom discussion. Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  16. Dropping Out • The dropout rate has declined slightly in recent decades. • Dropping out is least pronounced among non-Hispanic whites • Researchers: Actual dropout rates are probably at least twice the government's numbers. • Some reasons for dropping out: • Problems with the English language • Pregnancy • Must work to help support their family Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  17. Academic Standards • Functional illiteracy–A lack of reading and writing skills needed for everyday living • The US spends more on schooling than almost any other country, but teens still show low science and math skills. • US students generally are less motivated and do less homework than Japanese students. • Japanese students spend 60 more days in school each year than US students Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  18. School Choice • Pro: School choice creates a market for schooling so parents and students can shop for the best value. • Con: Such programs erode national commitment to public education, especially in urban schools. • Magnet schools–Schools that offer special facilities and programs to promote educational excellence in a particular area. • Charter schools–Public schools with more freedom to try out new policies and programs • Schooling for profit–School systems operated by private, for-profit companies Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  19. Home Schooling • Gaining popularity • Involves more school-age children than magnet schools, charter schools, and for-profit schools combined • Pro: Better results • Con: “Takes some of the most affluent and articulate parents out of the system” Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  20. Schooling People with Disabilities • About half of all children with disabilities are schooled in special facilities; the rest attend public schools. • Mainstreaming–Integrating students with disabilities or special needs into the overall educational program • Works best for physically impaired students who can keep up academically Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  21. Adult Education • In 2001, more than 92 million adults over age 25 were enrolled in some type of schooling. • Why do adults return to the classroom? • To advance a career or train for a new job, but many also point to the simple goal of personal enrichment Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  22. The Teacher Shortage • Schools have adopted new recruitment strategies. • Incentives: Higher salaries and signing bonuses • States could make certification easier. • School districts are actively recruiting in such countries as Spain, India, and the Philippines. Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.

  23. Schooling: Looking Ahead • The last decade has seen many new ideas about schooling. • Significant changes in mass education are likely. • New information technology will reshape schools • But it won’t solve all the problems, including violence and rigid bureaucracy Sociology, 12th Edition by John Macionis Copyright  2008 Prentice Hall, a division of Pearson Education. All rights reserved.