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Unit 2: Political and Social Reforms in the Gilded Age. Political Machines The Populist Movement The Progressive Movement Reforming the New Industrial Order Reforming Society Reforming Government . Intro. To the “Gilded Age”: 1870s-early 1900s. Unit 1 (Ch. 6&7) Unit 2 (Ch. 8, 9 &10).

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unit 2 political and social reforms in the gilded age

Unit 2: Political and Social Reforms in the Gilded Age

Political Machines

The Populist Movement

The Progressive Movement

Reforming the New Industrial Order

Reforming Society

Reforming Government

intro to the gilded age 1870s early 1900s
Intro. To the “Gilded Age”: 1870s-early 1900s
  • Unit 1 (Ch. 6&7)
  • Unit 2 (Ch. 8, 9 &10)
  • All of part of the recent trends of:
    • Industrialism
    • Big Business
    • Immigration
    • Urbanization
    • Politics
    • Social Reforms
definition of gilded
Definition of “Gilded”
  • To cover with gold or gold leafing, and to give a bright or pleasing aspect to
  • During the Gilded Age, life was made to seem wonderful, but underneath the surface there were many problems
  • Labeled the “Gilded Age” by Mark Twain
problems of the gilded age review
Problems of the Gilded Age: Review
  • Life in the big cities
  • Cultural diversity/immigration
  • Behavior of big business corporations
  • Behavior and role of labor unions
  • Behavior and role of laissez-faire government
  • Ideas of capitalism and Social Darwinism
  • Many pros and cons regarding these issues
attempts to reform
Attempts to Reform
  • “Participatory Democracy”

1) “Grass Roots” Efforts:

-Political, social, economic actions by citizens

-Protest movements and organizations

2) Social Reform Movements

-Populist Movement and Populist Party

-Progressive Movement and Political Party

3) Actual Government Actions

-Acts and Laws

-Court cases and Supreme Court decisions

increase in population
Increase in Population…
  • Put high demands on city governments
    • Fire
    • Police
    • Sanitation Departments
    • Construction
    • Utility Systems (sewage, water, etc)
    • BUT Laissez Faire = No real government action
the rise of political machines
The Rise of Political Machines
  • District representatives and city council members took charge of public services
  • Often times, they pocketed money meant for the public
political machines
Political Machines
  • Well organized political parties that dominated local and state governments
  • Party Bosses: Men who ran political machines
  • Provided jobs, favors and services to local residents
  • Most famous political machine was known as Tammany Hall in New York City
tammany hall cont d
Tammany Hall, cont’d…
  • Democratic Party machine that controlled NYC politics
  • Helped immigrants rise in American politics (most notably, the Irish)
  • Provided immigrants with an early version of the welfare system
tammany hall cont d1
Tammany Hall, cont’d
  • Tammany Hall provided the following for immigrants:
    • Welcome upon arrival
    • Temporary housing
    • Jobs
    • Citizenship
    • Funerals
tammany hall cont d2
Tammany Hall, cont’d
  • Why would a political machine like Tammany Hall “prey” on immigrants?
  • Represented a HUGE supply of supporters and voters
  • Tended to be very loyal
william boss tweed
William “Boss” Tweed
  • Head of Tammany Hall in the late 19th Century
  • Found to have stolen $40-$200 Million from New York City taxpayers through corruption
how did they profit
How Did They Profit?
  • Election fraud (stuffing ballot boxes)
  • Intimidating voters
  • Graft: Acquiring money or political power through illegal or dishonest methods
  • Kickbacks: Payments of part of the earnings from a job or contract
thomas nast the tweed ring
Thomas Nast & The Tweed Ring
  • Thomas Nast was a political cartoonist who despised Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall
  • Chose to utilize cartoons because many immigrants couldn’t read!
  • Created the Republican Elephant and the Democratic Donkey (and the modern day version of Santa!)
describe the word
Describe the Word…
  • Thomas Nast
  • Graft
  • Political Machine
  • Gilded
  • Tammany Hall
describe the word1
Describe the Word…
  • William “Boss” Tweed
  • Kickbacks
  • Party Bosses
  • Immigrants
  • Political Cartoon
tammany hall boss tweed
Tammany Hall: Boss Tweed
  • Role of Thomas Nast (like Jacob Riis)
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883
    • Similar to Sherman Anti-Trust Act
the populist movement
The Populist Movement
  • Farmers (like workers, immigrants, and minorities) suffer:
    • Ignored by government
    • Poor
    • Isolated and alone
    • Not respected
    • Not really represented
the populist movement cont d
The Populist Movement, cont’d…
  • Major issue for farmers=DEBT
    • Technology increases production
    • Farmers borrow money to purchase new technology
    • All farmers do this
    • THUS Overproduction
    • THUS Prices fall (Law of Supply and Demand)
    • THUSFarmers borrow money
    • THUS Farmers go into more debt
    • Railroad monopolies overcharge farmers for shipping and storage
farmers organize
Farmers Organize
  • National Grange:
    • 1867: Oliver Kelley
      • Social Organization and formation of cooperatives
  • Pressure RR companies to regulate shipping and storage rates
  • Farmers’ Alliance Movement 1870s:
    • Led by Mary Elizabeth Lease
    • Demanded graduated income tax
    • Provided low cost insurance
    • Pushed for tougher regulations on RR
farmers organize1
Farmers Organize
  • Greenback Party—1870s
  • Populist Party:
    • 1890: James Weaver
      • Pushed for a graduated income tax
      • Pushed for banking regulation
      • Wanted government ownership of RR (=Socialism)
      • Wanted coinage of silver
      • Wanted restricted immigration
      • Wanted shorter work day
      • Wanted voting reforms
populist movement cont d
Populist Movement, cont’d
  • William Jennings Bryan (Populist Democrat) ran against William McKinley (Republican) in the election of 1896
  • Bryan lost and McKinley took office
  • Signaled the end of the Populist Party
the progressive movement
The Progressive Movement
  • Industrial Age = Major Advancements
  • Industrial Age = Major Problems
  • Basic levels at which reform can occur
    • Grass-roots level = Individuals
    • Org. level = Reform movements
    • Gov. level = Laws, acts, court cases
populist movement progressivism
Populist MovementProgressivism
  • Main concerns:
    • Big gap between rich and poor
    • Bad urban conditions
    • Bad working conditions
    • Social problems
    • Political problems
      • Desire for more “democracy”
      • Desire more participation
      • Government authority from the people
progressive profile
Progressive Profile
  • Native born
  • Middle or Upper Class
  • Usually from Urban areas
  • College Educated
muckrakers
Muckrakers
  • Investigative journalists who wrote about corruption in business and politics, hoping to bring about change and reforms
reforming the new industrial order
Reforming the New Industrial Order
  • Harsh working conditions/hours, pay
  • Realities for women and children
  • Attempts at reform-push for new labor laws
    • Government involvment
      • Florence Kelley (1893): Anti-Child Labor Laws
      • National Child Labor Comm. (1904)
      • Rose Schneiderman—Triangle Shirtwaist Fire (1911): New York passes fire safety codes
supreme court cases inconsistent
Supreme Court Cases: Inconsistent
  • Lochner v. New York (1905)
    • 10 hour workday overturned
  • Muller v. Oregon (1908)
    • Some limits upheld for hours worked
    • Role of Louis Brandeis
    • Use of scientific research and evidence
labor unions
Labor Unions
  • Closed shops: Union membership required
  • Freedom of Contract: Workers can negotiate terms of their contract with bosses
  • AFL: American Federation of Labor
  • ILGWU: International Ladies Garment Workers Union
  • IWW: Industrial Workers of the World/Wobblies
reforming society
Reforming Society
  • Urban Reforms: Basically Make the cities healthier and more livable
    • State Tenement Housing Association
    • National Tuberculosis Association
    • Daniel Burnham—building codes
    • Playgrounds, parks, etc.
reforming society cont d
Reforming Society, cont’d…
  • Moral Reforms: Basically prohibition
    • Anti-Saloon League
    • Woman’s Christian Temperance Union-Carrie Nation
    • Frances Willard
    • Reverend Billy Sunday
    • Eventually: 18th Amendment (1919)—Volstead Act
reforming society cont d1
Reforming Society, cont’d…
  • Racial Reforms: Against discrimination
    • W.E.B. DuBois/Booker T. Washington
    • NAACP—1909—use of courts for equality
      • Guinn v. United States (1915)
        • Outlawed “grandfather clauses”
      • Buchanan v. Warley (1917)
        • Overturned housing segregation
    • National Urban League (1911)
      • Fought for racial equality in jobs and housing
    • Society of American Indians (1911)
problems for women
Problems for Women
  • Lacked the right to vote until 1920 (known as women’s suffrage)
  • 19th Amendment states that the government cannot deny a person their right to vote based on sex
reforming government
Reforming Government
  • If we are cleaning up cities, workplaces, and racial discrimination, then why not “clean up government”?
  • Main idea of Progressives: Make system more fair!
    • Give government back to the people
    • Make political process more democratic
specific political reforms
Specific Political Reforms
  • Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883)
  • Direct Primary: People nominate politicians
  • 17thAmendment: Senators elected by the people
  • Secret Ballot: All candidates are on one uniform ballot
  • Initiative: People introduce laws themselves
  • Referendum: Citizens can put newly created laws on the ballot for societal approval/disproval
  • Recall: Enables voters to remove an elected official from office
reforming cities progressive mayors
Reforming Cities: Progressive Mayors
  • Samuel Jones: Toledo (1897)
  • Tom L. Johnson: Cleveland
  • Use of city commissions, managers
    • Galveston 1900
  • Robert LaFollette: the “Wisconsin Idea”
amendments to the constitution
Amendments to the Constitution
  • Civil War through Reconstruction: 1865-1870
    • 13th Am. (1865): Abolition of slavery
    • 14th Am. (1868): Due process/equality for citizens
    • 15th Am. (1870): Voting rights cannot be denied due to color of skin: Suffrage for African American males
amendments to the constitution cont d
Amendments to the Constitution, cont’d…
  • Gilded Age/Progressive Era Amendments
    • 16th Am. (1913): Federal income tax
    • 17th Am. (1913): Direct election of US Senators
    • 18th Am. (1919): Prohibition of alcohol
    • 19th Am. (1920): Suffrage for women
    • Even US Presidents began to “reform” and adapt progressive policies
teddy roosevelt
Teddy Roosevelt
  • Wanted to use presidency as a “bully pulpit” to further his own goals
  • Goals:
    • Conservation: Preserve national parks and wildlife
teddy roosevelt cont d
Teddy Roosevelt, cont’d…
  • Goals, cont’d:
    • Improve life for lower and middle class
    • Original “trust-buster”
    • Every American deserves a “Square Deal, no more, no less”
    • Used “arbitration” to settle disputes (third party gets involved)
william howard taft
William Howard Taft
  • Did not want to overstep his boundaries (unlike T. Roosevelt)
  • Wanted to improve conditions for common man and help working class
  • Not well liked
  • Called the White House the most lonesome place on earth
woodrow wilson
Woodrow Wilson
  • Outspoken reformer who wanted Civil Rights and working class reforms
  • Liked the idea of using the government as an agent of change
  • Considered to be a “trust-buster” as well
  • (Known for being backed into corners!)