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Chapter 5. Biodiversity, Species I nteractions, and Population C ontrol. 5-1. How do species interact?. Vocab . Interspecific competition- Occurs when members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources (food, water, light, and space)

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chapter 5

Chapter 5

Biodiversity, Species Interactions, and Population Control



How do species interact?


Interspecific competition- Occurs when members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources (food, water, light, and space)

Predation- Occurs when a member of one species feeds directly on all or part of a member of another species

Parasitism -Occurs when one organism feeds on another organism usually by living on or in the host


Mutualism- Is an interaction that benefits both species by providing each with food shelter or some other resource

Commensalism-Is an interaction that benefits one species but has little or no affect on the other

Resource partitioning- species competing for similar scarce resources evolve specialized traits that allow them to share resources

Coevolution- when populations of two different species interact with each other for a long period of time that changes in the gene pool in one population can affect the gene pool of the other

science focus
Science focus

Threats to kelp forests

Composed of large concentrations of giant kelp

One of the most biologically diverse ecosystems

Help reduce shore erosion

Sea urchins and pollution are major threats

Sea otters help control sea urchins

science focus1
Science focus

Runoff containing pesticides and herbicides can kill kelp plants and kelp forest species

Fertilizer runoff causes excessive growth of algae and other plants that block sunlight to the giant kelp

Warming water will cause kelp forests to disappear

general information
General information

Each species plays a role in its ecosystem called its ecological niche

Camouflage and chemical warfare is used by both predator and prey

Warning coloration and behavioral strategies are used by the prey to confuse the predator


5-1 Key concept: Five types of species interactions- competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism- affect the resource use and population sizes of the species in the ecosystem



What limits growth of population?


Age structure- percentage of population at various ages

Range of tolerance- rage of chemical and physical conditions that must be maintained for survival of life

Limiting factors- factors that limit the growth abundance or distribution of a species in an ecosystem

Limiting factor principle- “too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population of a species in an ecosystem, even if all other factors are at or near the optimal range of tolerance for the species”


Carrying capacity- maximum population of a particular species that a given habitat can support over a given period

Population crash- die back of population that has used up its supply of resources exceeding the carrying capacity of its environment

Population density- number of organisms found in a particular population found in a specified area

science focus2
Science focus

Why do California sea otters face an uncertain future?

Females are sexually mature at 2-5 years

Can produce pups until 15 years old

Only has 1 pup a year

Orcas prey on otters when their natural prey populations started declining

Parasites from flushed cat litter

Run off fertilizer and other chemicals

general information1
General information

Changes in the population size of keystone species can alter the species composition and biodiversity in ecosystems

Humans are not exempt: potato crisis, bubonic plague, AIDS


5-2 Key concept: no population can continue to grow indefinitely because of limitations on resources and because of competition among species for those resources



How do communities and ecosystems responding to changing environmental conditions?

  • Ecological succession- process in which communities of plant and animal species in a particular ecosystem are replaced over time by a series of different and more complex communities
    • Primary- involves the gradual establishment of biotic communities in lifeless areas
    • Secondary- a series of communities or ecosystems with different species develop

Persistence- the ability of a living system to survive moderate disturbances

Resilience- the ability of a system to be restored through secondary succession after a more sever disturbance

science focus3
Science focus

How do species replace one another in ecological succession?

  • Three ways-
    • Facilitation: one set of species makes an area suitable for species wit different niche requirements but less suitable for itself
    • Inhibition: some early species hinder the establishment of growth of other species
    • Tolerance: plants in late stages of succession are largely unaffected by plants that came in during earlier stages because the later plants are not in direct competition with the earlier ones for key resources
general information2
General information

Primary and secondary ecological succession are important natural services that tend to increase biodiversity by increasing species richness and interaction among species

Ecological succession proceeds in an orderly fashion until a stable climax community is reached and starts over when that community is destroyed


5-3 Key concept: the structure and species composition of communities and ecosystems change in response to changing environmental conditions through a process called ecological succession