Chapter 5. Biodiversity, Species I nteractions, and Population C ontrol. 5-1. How do species interact?. Vocab . Interspecific competition- Occurs when members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources (food, water, light, and space)
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Biodiversity, Species Interactions, and Population Control
How do species interact?
Interspecific competition- Occurs when members of two or more species interact to gain access to the same limited resources (food, water, light, and space)
Predation- Occurs when a member of one species feeds directly on all or part of a member of another species
Parasitism -Occurs when one organism feeds on another organism usually by living on or in the host
Mutualism- Is an interaction that benefits both species by providing each with food shelter or some other resource
Commensalism-Is an interaction that benefits one species but has little or no affect on the other
Resource partitioning- species competing for similar scarce resources evolve specialized traits that allow them to share resources
Coevolution- when populations of two different species interact with each other for a long period of time that changes in the gene pool in one population can affect the gene pool of the other
Threats to kelp forests
Composed of large concentrations of giant kelp
One of the most biologically diverse ecosystems
Help reduce shore erosion
Sea urchins and pollution are major threats
Sea otters help control sea urchins
Runoff containing pesticides and herbicides can kill kelp plants and kelp forest species
Fertilizer runoff causes excessive growth of algae and other plants that block sunlight to the giant kelp
Warming water will cause kelp forests to disappear
Each species plays a role in its ecosystem called its ecological niche
Camouflage and chemical warfare is used by both predator and prey
Warning coloration and behavioral strategies are used by the prey to confuse the predator
5-1 Key concept: Five types of species interactions- competition, predation, parasitism, mutualism, and commensalism- affect the resource use and population sizes of the species in the ecosystem
What limits growth of population?
Age structure- percentage of population at various ages
Range of tolerance- rage of chemical and physical conditions that must be maintained for survival of life
Limiting factors- factors that limit the growth abundance or distribution of a species in an ecosystem
Limiting factor principle- “too much or too little of any abiotic factor can limit or prevent growth of a population of a species in an ecosystem, even if all other factors are at or near the optimal range of tolerance for the species”
Carrying capacity- maximum population of a particular species that a given habitat can support over a given period
Population crash- die back of population that has used up its supply of resources exceeding the carrying capacity of its environment
Population density- number of organisms found in a particular population found in a specified area
Why do California sea otters face an uncertain future?
Females are sexually mature at 2-5 years
Can produce pups until 15 years old
Only has 1 pup a year
Orcas prey on otters when their natural prey populations started declining
Parasites from flushed cat litter
Run off fertilizer and other chemicals
Changes in the population size of keystone species can alter the species composition and biodiversity in ecosystems
Humans are not exempt: potato crisis, bubonic plague, AIDS
5-2 Key concept: no population can continue to grow indefinitely because of limitations on resources and because of competition among species for those resources
How do communities and ecosystems responding to changing environmental conditions?
Persistence- the ability of a living system to survive moderate disturbances
Resilience- the ability of a system to be restored through secondary succession after a more sever disturbance
How do species replace one another in ecological succession?
Primary and secondary ecological succession are important natural services that tend to increase biodiversity by increasing species richness and interaction among species
Ecological succession proceeds in an orderly fashion until a stable climax community is reached and starts over when that community is destroyed
5-3 Key concept: the structure and species composition of communities and ecosystems change in response to changing environmental conditions through a process called ecological succession