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Matter. Density - Part 1. What Do You Think?. Oil is thicker than water so why doesn’t it sink? If a wood block that floats is cut in half, will each half float higher, lower or the same? What is the difference between an extensive and intensive property?

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Matter

Density - Part 1

What Do You Think?
• Oil is thicker than water so why doesn’t it sink?
• If a wood block that floats is cut in half, will each half float higher, lower or the same?
• What is the difference between an extensive and intensive property?
• How can the properties and components of matter be used to predict its behavior?
Engage 1

What is happen in the container?

What is causing this?

What is the lightest?

What is the heaviest?

Investigate – Part A
• 1. Measure the mass of an empty, dry graduated cylinder.
• 2. Add 10 mL of water to the graduated cylinder. Remember when reading the volume, take the reading at the lowest part of the meniscus, as shown in the diagram.
• a) Record the volume of water in your table. Remember to consider the uncertainty of your measurement when recording your data.
• 3. Measure the mass of the graduated cylinder and 10 mL of water.
• a) Record the measurement in the table in your log.
• b) Calculate the mass of the water and record this in your table.
• 4. Add another 10 mL to the graduated cylinder and measure the mass. Calculate the mass of 20 mL of water.
• Repeat this step for five more volumes of water.
Investigate
• 5. Use the data you obtained.
• a) Plot a graph of the mass versus the volume of water. Plot volume on the x-axis (horizontal axis) and mass on the y-axis (vertical axis).
• b) As the volume of the water increases, what happens to the mass?
• Since the graph you created is a straight line (or close to a straight line), you should draw the best fit line through the data points. Do not connect the points with small segments but draw one line that comes closest to all of the individual points. The line you draw should pass through or close to the zero.
Investigate
• 6. Use the data you obtained.
• a) Divide the mass of each sample of water by the volume. What do you notice about the relationship between the mass and the volume and the mass to volume ratio?
• b) How does the slope of the graph compare to the values you calculated in this step?
• 7. Your teacher will provide you with a sample of a liquid such as ethanol. Use the same procedure you used to find the mass and corresponding volumes of water to determine the slope of the ethanol’s mass/volume graph and the mass to volume ratio.
Investigate
• Part B: Mass and Volume of Solids
• 1. Your teacher will provide you with three samples each of two different solid materials or a sample of a material like clay that can easily be divided into pieces.
• 2. As a group, decide on a procedure to calculate the mass/volume ratio and slope of the graph of each material. You can consider using either method shown in the diagrams on this and the next slide for measuring the volume of each solid. Volume of solids is usually expressed in cubic centimeters. One milliliter is equivalent to one cubic centimeter (1 mL = 1 cm3).
• 3. Use the data you collected.
• a) Plot a mass versus volume graph for each solid. Plot both solids on the same graph.
• b) How do the slopes for the two solids compare? Which solid has the larger mass for the same volume?
Investigate
• 4. Cut the clay brick in half. Repeat the mass/volume ratio with only half of the clay.
• What did you notice?
• What is this type of property?
Explain - Chem Talk
• Read pp. 138-140 and p. 603- 605 answer the following questions.
• 1. Explain the meaning of density.
• 2. Explain the difference between feathers and lead, using the concept of density.
• 3. Why is balsa instead of birch wood used in the construction of model airplanes?
• 4. What is accuracy ? What is precision? Explain how each is defined in chemistry.
• 5. What are significant digits? What are the rules involving significant digits?
• 6. How can you find density mathematically?
• 7. Look at the graph of the mass and volume of a liquid. Use your data to show that density is an intensive property. An intensive property is one that does not depend on the amount of the material.
Elaborate
• You are given the mass and volume of a mystery material. How could you determine what is the material?
Evaluate
• !. What is the density of balsa wood if a piece 1.0 cm x 3.0 cm x 2.0 cm has a mass of 96 g?
• 2. What is the volume of water occupied by 100.0 g of water?
• 3. What is the density for a powder that weighs 40.0 g in air and when added to 30.0 mL of water, the total volume is 45.0 mL?
• 4. Mike’s pet turtle has a mass of 150.0 g. The turtle displaces 30.0 mL of water. Calculate the density of the turtle.
• 5. A container weighs 100.0 g when empty, 250.0 g when filled with water and 200.0 g when filled with alcohol. Calculate the density of the alcohol.
• 6. Given these values: 1. 80.0 g has volume of 20.0 mL

2. 4.00 cm3 has a mass of 12.0 g.

• a) Which substances has the greatest density?
• b) Are A and B more or less dense than water?