The GTBE® Company BIODIESEL GLYCERIN:The consequences and solutions Sjaak van Loo (Sjaak.vanLoo@procede.nl)
Procede Group BV (www.procede.nl) • Activities: Process and Product development based on leading knowledge in process (chemical) engineering • Markets & clients: • Oil&Gas, Chemical and Food industry • 60% multinationals, 30% SME’s • 10% own technology positions (spin-off’s) • Resources: • ~ 30 process engineers (all academic, 25% PhD) • Research facilities, laboratories
General background • Glycerin is probably one of the first organic molecules known to man (ever since the discovery of soap-making) So its uses are well-developed. • The peculiarity of glycerin, from any source, is that it is a by-product, so that its production is independent of market demand. • 10% of oil and fat input for soap, fatty acid and ester manufacture is set free as glycerin.
Glycerin and Biodiesel(1) • EU directive EC 2003/30/EG sets targets for renewable transportation fuels: • 2 % of total in 2005 • 0,75 % growth per year to 5,75 % in 2010 • Two main types: Bio-ethanol & Biodiesel • Sharply increasing amounts of glycerin produced as by-product from biodiesel production
Glycerin and Biodiesel(2) • For every ton of biodiesel 100 kg of glycerin is co-produced, leading to 1 M ton/a glycerin in 2010. • These quantities are generated over and above the amounts from traditional sources
Traditional Glycerin uses(2) • Traditional outlets can be expected to show only limited growth (and this at the expense of other polyhydroxy compounds such as glycols and sorbitol) • Entirely new, large-scale uses for glycerin need to be developed........andfast!
The Solution: GTBE®(1) • The most promising new outlet appears to be a new additive for diesel (both fossil- and bio-) • The target compound is a mixture of the di- and tri- butyl-ethers of glycerin: GTBE® • It will lead to reduction in emissions of: • Particulates • NOx • Hydrocarbons (unburned)
The Solution: GTBE®(2) Mono Glycerin Acid kat. Di Tri Isobutylene
The GTBE® Company The Solution: GTBE®(6) • Expertise and IP combined: • Procede Group BV, NL (Process dev.) • Chemconserve, NL (Market dev.) • Blue Ocean, UK (Fuels) • Rabobank, NL (Green fund) • Our objective: Develop and implement a production unit for 500.000 t/a GTBE
The Solution: GTBE®(7) • Present status: • Its synthesis from glycerin and isobutylene has been studied up to a first plant set-up and cost price • Preliminary experimental testing has shown promising results and confirm data from literature • Industrial feasibility is studied and concluded to be positive • Process development is ongoing
The Solution: GTBE®(8) • Further testing of GTBE in combustion engine laboratories is needed • Pilot plant research and development of a complete plant design is needed • Other aspects to be studied: • Environmental and safety aspects (REACh) • Raw materials availability, prices • Process optimization
Summary • The EU-directive means by-production of 1 M ton glycerin per annum • World glycerin use is stable and is not capable to take up this additional amount • Production of GTBE from glycerin and use it as diesel additive will lower diesel emissions and enable total absorption of the glycerin glut • International cooperation and funding is needed for further process and market development