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Toward an Organizational e-Readiness Model. By: Aqel M. Aqel. بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. أقرأ باسم ربك الذي خلق خلق الإنسان من علق اقرأ وربك الأكرم الذي علم بالقلم علم الإنسان ما لم يعلم. 2. 1. 4. 3. 5. صدق الله العظيم. Lecture Brief.

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slide2
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

أقرأ باسم ربك الذي خلق خلق الإنسان من علق

اقرأ وربك الأكرم الذي علم بالقلم

علم الإنسان ما لم يعلم

2

1

4

3

5

صدق الله العظيم

lecture brief
Lecture Brief
  • Measuring Business Process Maturity while assessing organizational readiness for organizational e-transformation.
  • Illustrates a proposed comprehensive model for assessing organizational readiness including business process criteria in addition to other organizational e-readiness billers (strategy, info technology, IT Security and ability to change).
content
Content
  • Introduction:
    • E-Transformation Concept (Technology Enabled Government / T-Government)
    • Importance Of E-Transformation
    • Need For Readiness Model
  • Towards A Unified Organizational Readiness Model:
    • Model Components (Includes Business Process Readiness)
    • Business Process Readiness Criteria (Illustration And How To Measure)
    • Inter-Agencies Processes
    • National Level Business Process Management Bureau (NBPMB)
  • Closure
    • Quick summary for our lecture
    • Conclusion (adopting national readiness model, and national level NBPMB)
part 1 introduction
Part 1: Introduction
  • E-Transformation Concept:
    • Technology Enabled Government / T-Government
  • Importance Of E-Transformation
  • Need For Readiness Model
slide7

E-Transformation: Opportunities and Barriers

  • Total Dependency on IT
  • IT Impacts on Societies:
    • Politically
    • Economically
    • Socially
    • Service delivery
  • Managerial revolution is running parallel with IT revolution.
  • Information / Knowledge societies
slide8

E-Transformation: Opportunities and Barriers

  • What is e-Transformation:
    • The processof transforming in to an innovative & effective IT-enabled organization is e-Transformation.
  • Transformation levels:
    • Government Agencies
    • Private Sector
    • Academic institutions
    • Persons and societies
slide9

E-Transformation: Opportunities and barriers

  • Barriers
    • Infrastructural
    • Financial
    • Organizational
    • Legislative
    • Security
    • Others
slide11

e-Readiness

Criteria

Methods

Audits

Monitoring

Initiatives

Desired Situation

Existing Situation

Initiatives (projects)

Opportunities

Limitations

Infrastructure

Training

Uncertainties

e-Services

Change Management

Barriers

E-Readiness Concept

  • Using e-Readiness to facilitate organizational transformation
  • Source: Aqel M. Aqal.
slide12

E-Readiness Concept

  • e-Readiness is the generic capacity or aptitude of the public sector to useICT for encapsulating public services and deploying to the public high quality information (explicit knowledge) and effective communication tools that support human development«

[WPSR,2003, page 135].

  • Human Development
  • Provide Information
  • Generic
  • Capacity
  • Use Information Technology
  • Provide Service
slide13

E-Readiness Concept

  • Human Development
    • E- Government initiatives classification (UN, 2003)
      • Wasteful
      • Pointless
      • Meaningful
slide15

E-Readiness Concept

E-Readiness Levels

  • Global
  • Regional
  • National
  • Industries /Business Sectors
  • Organizational
  • Community
  • Personal
  • e-Readiness levels
  • Source: Aqel
slide16

National e-Readiness billers

  • National e-Readiness
    • Telecom
    • Banking Sector
    • Academic
    • Business Sectors
    • Legal
    • Individuals and Society

Figure 4.2: National e-Government Readiness

Source: Author

slide17

Organizational E-Readiness

  • Answering the Question:
    • What preparations management should provide to digital era.
  • Org. Readiness depends:
    • National e-gov model.
    • Organization Role in national e-trans.
    • Nature of relations with others.
    • General maturity technically and managerially.
slide18

Importance of e-readiness model

  • Using an e-readiness model:
    • Will Help formulating strategic plans based on identified needs.
    • Justify projects and its dependencies
    • Upgrading to higher levels of maturity
    • Unify criteria to assess and compare readiness
slide19

Importance of e-readiness model

  • E-readiness criteria depends on ideal organization characterized in “learning organization”.
  • "learning organizations continuously learns through its members individually and collectively to create a sustainable competitive advantage by effectively managing internally and externally generated change" [Sudharatna& Li, 2007].
slide20

E-Readiness Concept

Layers of readiness

  • Learning org. characteristics:
    • Cultural values
    • Leadership
    • Commitment and empowerment
    • Communication, knowledge transfer
    • Employee characteristics and performance upgrading
conclusion

Conclusion

Organizational e-Readiness Model

slide22

Organizational E-Readiness Model

  • Strategy Readiness
  • Business Process
  • IT Infrastructure
  • Org. Culture readiness (Ability to Change)
  • IT Security
slide24

Organizational e-Readiness 1. Strategy

  • Strategic management and transformational leadership style are two key factors that contribute to the success of e-government initiatives

[Wenbo, 2002]

slide25

Organizational e-Readiness 1. Strategy

  • Public agencies with considerable goal ambiguity tend to have a difficult time strategizing and implementing management innovations.

Wechsler et. al. 1997

slide26

Organizational e-Readiness 1. Strategy

  • Strategy Readiness
    • Ability for strategic planning
    • Ability to strategic management
    • Organizational structure
    • Functions and services
    • Performance management
    • Informational Model
slide27

Managed OR mechanism

Used effectively in HR

Identify relationships and authorities

Covers all activities including ICT

Communicated and recognized

Organizational structure is documented

Organizational e-Readiness 1. Strategy

  • 1.1 Organizational Structure
    • "Organizational structure is the way in which the interrelated groups of an organization are constructed. The main concerns are effective communication and coordination" [wikipedia, 2007]
slide28

Organizational e-Readiness 1. Strategy

  • 1.2 Functions and services
    • What products and services we deliver in order to achieve our strategy.
      • What Departments are doing
      • What products and Services they are providing to:
        • Individuals
        • Small Businesses
        • Corporates
        • Other key stakeholders
slide29

Organizational e-Readiness 1. Strategy

  • 1.2 Functions and services
    • Evaluate functions and services
    • Are services satisfying and supporting business strategy
    • Clear responsibilities
    • Level of Automation
    • Integration with HR incentive System
organizational e readiness 1 strategy
Organizational e-Readiness 1. Strategy
  • 1.3 Performance management
    • Performance management is "a systematic, integrated management approach that links enterprise strategy to core processes and activities. By providing planning, budgeting, analysis and reporting capabilities, performance management allows the business to be "run by the numbers" and measurement to drive management decisions." [wikipedia, 2007]
    • Strategic planning can help in managing change through: linking agency strategies with performance measures". [Berry, 2007]
    • "Monitoring progress made toward achieving program goals requires systematic measurement. ICT has facilitated the processing of unprecedented amounts of program data more efficiently than ever before" [Newcomer, 2007].
organizational e readiness 1 strategy1
Organizational e-Readiness 1. Strategy
  • 1.4 Informational Model
    • "A high-level roadmap containing software, hardware, and other information technology requirements for health & secured environment managed information systems HSE-MIS" [HSE-MIS, 2001].
    • It’s Part of organization strategy as all stakeholders need to exchange information.
    • Planning for information provision should be parallel with business strategy.
slide33

Organizational e-Readiness 2-Business Process

  • "collection of activities that takes one or more kinds of input and creates an output that is of value"

[Credit research foundation, 2007],

  • "business process is a recipe for achieving a commercial result. Each business process has inputs, method and outputs. The inputs are a pre-requisite that must be in place before the method can be put into practice. When the method is applied to the inputs then certain outputs will be created"

[wikipedia, 2007].

slide34

Organizational e-Readiness 2- Business Process

  • Evaluation criteria
  • Documentation
  • Effectiveness
  • Performance Management
  • Automation
slide35

Organizational e-Readiness 2- Business Process

  • 2.1 Documentation
    • Base for other criteria
    • Sanctions & decorees are not detailed BP documents
    • Organizations should realize and document its business processes in modern and structured way.
slide36

Organizational e-Readiness 2- Business Process

  • 2.1 Documentation
    • Availability of a business process committee
    • Availability of updated documentation for all strategic processes
    • Accessibility to documentation for staff
    • Availability of Electronic workflow systems
    • Integration of BPD to human resources roles and responsibilities.
    • Integration of BPD to automated systems.
slide37

Organizational e-Readiness 2-Business Process

2.2 Effectiveness

  • Clarity of process drivers, initiators, triggers and inputs.
  • Clarity of process roles and responsibilities in various stages
  • Clarity of process exceptions and predefined handlings
  • Clarity of process controls and related objectives
  • Clarity of process outputs in various stages
  • Mechanisms to monitor adherence to process qualities
  • level of support available at each stage
slide38

Organizational e-Readiness 2-Business Process

  • 2.3 Performance Management
    • Aims at business process optimization and stakeholders' satisfaction.
    • will help agency monitor process effectiveness and find reasons and ways for enhancement.
    • BPP could be measured at process steps (tasks) level or at participant's level in order to quantify process performance analysis.
    • Organizations that have performance management in place are more ready to transform to learning org.
slide39

Organizational e-Readiness 2-Business Process

  • 2.4 Automation
    • Two key criteria to be assessed
      • Number of automated steps
      • Ability to provide and exchange data electronically.
organizational e readiness 3 ict infrastructures and management
Organizational e-Readiness 3-ICT infrastructures and Management
  • Infrastructure
  • DBMS
  • Applications
  • ICT Management
  • Technical skills

Skills

organizational e readiness 3 ict infrastructures and management1
Organizational e-Readiness 3-ICT infrastructures and Management
  • 3.1 Infrastructure
    • Aims at 24x7 Availability
      • Hardware
      • Communication Network
      • Intranet ، Internet ، Extranet
      • Capacity Management
      • ICT Facility
        • Power
        • ACs
organizational e readiness 3 ict infrastructures and management2
Organizational e-Readiness 3-ICT infrastructures and Management
  • 3.2 DBMS
    • Depends on firm role at national / regional level
    • Firm need to have electronic information to share and exchange with stakeholders.
      • Data coding and classification
      • Minimal Redundancy
      • Data Dictionary
      • Data exchange protocols
      • compatibility
      • Licenses
      • Data security and backup
organizational e readiness 3 ict infrastructures and management3
Organizational e-Readiness 3-ICT infrastructures and Management
  • 3.3 Applications
    • We mean Business applications (ready and tailor made)
    • Applications replaced ordinary paper based business processes
    • Applications contains business process and controls
organizational e readiness 3 ict infrastructures and management4
Organizational e-Readiness 3-ICT infrastructures and Management
  • 3.4 Applications
    • Application functional maturity
    • Application maintainability
    • Application Integration ability
    • Application security
organizational e readiness 3 ict infrastructures and management5
Organizational e-Readiness 3-ICT infrastructures and Management
  • 3.5 ICT Management
    • E-transformation requires a matured ICT management due to the expanding role of ICT.
      • Effectiveness
      • Efficiency
      • Confidentiality
      • Integrity
      • Availability
      • Reliability
      • Compliancy
organizational e readiness 3 ict infrastructures and management6
Organizational e-Readiness 3-ICT infrastructures and Management
  • 3.5 ICT Management effectiveness:
    • Structure(Internal and external):
        • Level of authority and position in org. Authority and decision making
        • Internal structure
        • Segregation of Duties
        • Completeness of quality function
    • ICT processes effectiveness.
      • Policies and procedures
      • Documentation (job description)
      • Roles and responsibilities
      • Knowledge sharing and management
      • Information services maturity
        • Product service realization
        • Quality
        • Help disk and
organizational e readiness 3 ict infrastructures and management7
Organizational e-Readiness 3-ICT infrastructures and Management
  • 3.5 ICT Management effectiveness:

3. Technical skills

      • many and vary according to the following factors:
        • Level of maturity of agency's ICT function.
        • Agency's e-government strategic plan.
        • The role of outsourcing versus in-house team members.
        • Available approaches for agency to gain new skills and capabilities.
organizational e readiness 3 ict infrastructures and management8
Organizational e-Readiness 3-ICT infrastructures and Management
  • ICT functions should develop capabilities in the following key skills:
    • Capable operations staff for systems and networks
    • Capable database administration.
    • Programming and software development methodologies
    • Business analysis and processes reengineering
    • Software engineering and integration
    • Security specialist
    • ICT Quality specialist
    • Project management skills
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change1
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • So Far…
    • strategy readiness to ensure being on the right direction
    • Business process readiness to ensure doing the right things to achieve goals.
    • Technology readiness to enable the business.
  • Change is always a real challenge:
    • Bureaucracy.
    • Are stakeholders going to accept radical change.
    • Do they have the same concerns and interests.
    • They do have varies impacts and influences.
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change2
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • Ability to change readiness criteria:
    • Leadership
    • Human resource alignment
    • Effective communication
    • Risk Management
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change3
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • 4.1 leadership
    • Leadership was classified as a barrier to e-trans
    • Transformational leadership elements are included
      • Awareness of e-trans concepts and benefits.
      • Embracement of e-trans
      • Leadership skills
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change4
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • 4.2 Human resources alignment
    • Considered an extension to strategy readiness
      • Reduce resistance
      • Protect e-Transformation investment
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change5
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • 4.2 HR alignment criteria includes the following:
    • Dissemination of strategic objectives
    • Job descriptions and Responsibilities
    • Policies to attract and retain skilled workers
    • HR Motivation
    • HR Performance Management
    • HR continuous development
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change6
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • 4.2 Human resources alignment
    • Realization of strategic objectives
      • Strategy should be understood by workers at all levels
      • Workers should know how they contribute to achieve the strategy
      • Workers should not left in vague
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change7
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • 4.2 Human resources alignment
    • Job description (roles and responsibilities)
      • Organizations with clear roles and resp. are more ready to transform to e-age
      • Roles and responsibilities must be derived from Org structure and
      • This will facilitate changes mandated by reengineered and automated business processed.
      • Will also facilitate reassignment of authority, empowerment..etc
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change8
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • HR Attraction and retention
    • There is a need to deal with highly wanted workers
    • Risk: training workers will make them drain out
    • Must change HR policies to retain skilled workers.
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change9
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • HR Motivation
    • Unmotivated workers can not afford change
    • Need for national level motivation system
    • Allgin workers personal ambitions with e-trans programs objectives
    • Rewards (personal, organizational and leader)
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change10
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • HR Performance Management
      • Organization performance depends on HR
      • HR performance data will help in strategic planning
      • Monitoring e-trans initiative on HR Performance
      • This will help restructuring HR to the optimum
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change11
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • HR Development polices and procedures
    • E-transformation will mandate new skills
    • E-transformation plans need to be integrated to other HR development plan
    • Successive Managementto sustain success ad continuity.
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change12
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • 4.3 Effective Communication
    • "People in organizations typically spend over 75% of their time in an interpersonal situation"

[Wertheim, 2007];

    • Vertical and Horizontal communication:
      • Disseminate e-transformation awareness
      • Collaboration between stakeholders
      • Support Daily activities
      • Communication is essential part of business process
      • Replace conventional communication tools with new automated and electronic ones.
organizational e readiness 4 ability to change13
Organizational e-Readiness 4-ability To Change
  • 4.4 Risk management maturity
    • So many threats are threatening e-transformation
      • Business process controls
      • IT Security
    • Will evaluate:
      • Clear role of risk management
      • Availability of policies and procedures
      • Business continuity plans).
    • Result: more controlled environment while transforming.
organizational e readiness 5 it security1
Organizational e-Readiness 5 - IT Security
  • IT Security is considered as key barrier for e-transformation
  • Even successful org. has too much to do to secure its information.
  • IT threats:
    • Are so many
    • Diversified
    • Of high specialty
    • New threats are coming every day
  • IT security must be addressed at national level
  • IT security include many non technical roles
organizational e readiness 5 it security2
Organizational e-Readiness 5 - IT Security
  • 5.1 Top management realization
    • Each org. has its own IT Security structure
    • IT security is tightly related to informational model
    • Top management is responsible and accountable for IT security.
    • High level steering committee should effectively follow up IT security
organizational e readiness 5 it security3
Organizational e-Readiness 5 - IT Security
  • 5.2 Business department readiness
    • Are departments heads and executives aware of their role in IT security.
    • Are they participating in data classification
    • Evaluate access rights management
    • IT security management structure:
      • Shared responsibilities
      • Decision making
      • Independent audit.
organizational e readiness 5 it security4
Organizational e-Readiness 5 - IT Security
  • 5.3 ICT function readiness
    • Must afford IT security criteria:
      • Confidentiality
      • Integrity
      • Availability
  • Will evaluate:
    • ICT awrareness about IT security concepts
    • Current IT security practices (policies & procedures)
    • Coordination level with other stakeholders.
organizational e readiness 5 it security5
Organizational e-Readiness 5 - IT Security
  • 5.3 ICT function readiness
    • IT team skills:
      • Risk Assessment
      • Impact analysis
      • Countermeasures
      • Incident Management
      • Disaster Recovery
organizational e readiness 5 it security6
Organizational e-Readiness 5 - IT Security
  • Current IT security practices:
    • Protective Countermeasures
    • Corrective Countermeasures
    • Best practices (ISO17799 , BS7799)
  • Assets management
  • Human resources security
  • Physical and Environmental Security
summary

Strategy Readiness

Well documented and communicated vision, mission goals and objectives and KPIs.

Strategic Planning

  • Organizational structure is documented
  • Communicated and recognized
  • Covers all activities including ICT
  • Identify relationships and authorities
  • Used effectively in HR
  • Managed OR mechanism

Organizational Structure

Functions and services

  • Clearly defined and strategically mapped internal and external functions and services.
  • Assigned responsibilities (ownership),
  • level of automation
  • integration with incentive system

Performance Management

Generic maturity stages

Informational Model

Defined information architecture

Data requirements

Operational requirements

summary
summary1

Availability of a business process committee

  • Availability of updated documentation
  • Accessibility of documentation by agency staff
  • Availability of Electronic workflow systems
  • Integration of BPD to human resources
  • Integration of BPD to automated systems.

Business Process Readiness

Documentation

  • Clarity of process drivers, triggers and inputs
  • Clarity of process roles and responsibilities
  • Clarity of process exceptions handlings
  • Clarity of process controls and related objectives
  • Clarity of process outputs in various stages
  • Level of adherence to process qualities
  • level of support available at each stage

Effectiveness

Performance

Common maturity levels should be used

Automation

  • Percentage of automated tasks and steps
  • Ability to integrate and exchange digital information
summary
summary2

Hardware

  • Communication Network
  • Facility with environmental and physical security

Technology readiness

Hardware Infrastructures

  • Cleansed and well structured historical info
  • Ability to share and transfer data to web content
  • hardware Availability counter-measures:
  • Data retention policies and backup systems

Databases

  • Application maturity
  • Application maintainability
  • Application Integration ability
  • Application security

Application

ICT Management

  • Organization structure
  • ICT processes readiness- Policies & Standards

Technical skills

  • Capable systems and network operations staff
  • Capable database administration.
  • Programming and development
  • Business Analysis / processes reengineering
  • Software engineering and integration
  • Security specialist
  • ICT Quality specialist
  • Project management skills
summary
summary3

Changeability Readiness

  • Awareness
  • Embracement
  • Leadership skills

Leadership

  • Dissemination of strategic objectives
  • Job descriptions and Responsibilities
  • Policies to attract and retain skilled workers
  • HR Motivation
  • HR Performance Management
  • HR continuous development

Human Resource Alignment

Communication

  • Effectiveness of Vertical and horizontal Comm.

Risk Management

  • Responsibility for risks in organization
  • Business continuity and disaster recover plans
summary
summary4

ICT Security Readiness

  • Awareness of leadership role in security
  • existing strategic security management
  • Security enforcement in strategy components

Top management realization & adoption

  • Executives' realization of key security roles.
  • Alignment of security with business
  • Coordination with technology function (dept)

Department level readiness

Security Technical readiness

  • Realization of technical security requirements
  • Existing level of security practices
  • Coordination with other departments
summary
finally
Finally,
  • This is a call for establishing a research center for organizational e-readiness at national and regional levels.