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Covalent Bonding and Polarity. AP Chemistry Bonding Notes 2. The Majority of chemical substances do not have characteristics of ionic compounds. A chemical bond formed by a shared pair of electrons is called a covalent bond Both atoms acquire a noble gas configuration by sharing.

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covalent bonding and polarity

Covalent Bonding and Polarity

AP Chemistry

Bonding Notes 2

covalent bonding

The Majority of chemical substances do not have characteristics of ionic compounds.

  • A chemical bond formed by a shared pair of electrons is called a covalent bond
  • Both atoms acquire a noble gas configuration by sharing
Covalent Bonding
lewis structures

Formation of covalent bonds can be represented by using Lewis symbols

  • The structures are called Lewis structures
  • We usually show each electron pair shared between atoms as a line and show unshared pairs as dots
  • Each pair of shared electrons makes up one chemical bond
Lewis Structures
multiple bonds

It is possible for more than one pair of electrons to be shared between two atoms ( multiple bonds)

  • One shared pair of electrons is a single bond
  • Two shared pairs of electrons is a double bond
  • Three shared pairs of electrons is a triple bond
  • Generally bond distances decrease as we move from single through double to triple bonds
Multiple Bonds
bond polarity

The electrons pairs shared between two different atoms are usually shared one atom will pull harder on the electrons than the other.

  • Nonpolar covalent bond- the electrons are shared equally for example in a diatomic molecule
  • Polar Covalent bond, one of the atoms exerts a greater attraction for bonding than other.
  • If the difference is large enough, an ionic bond forms
Bond Polarity

The ability of an atom in a molecule to attract electrons to itself is its electronegativity.

  • The electronegativity of an element is related to its ionization energy and electron affinity
  • Pauling electonegativity scale: from 0.7 (Cs) to 4.0 (F)
  • Electronegativity increases from left to right across a period and decreases down a group
electronegativity and bond polarity

Electronegativity differences close to zero result in nonpolar covalent bonds

  • The electrons are equally or almost equally shared.
  • The greater the difference in electronegativity between two atoms, the more polar the bond (polar covalent bonds)
  • There is no sharp distinction between bond types.
Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
dipole moments

Molecules like HF have centers of positive and negative charge that do not coincide- these are polar moleucles

  • We indicate polarity two ways
    • As d+ at the positive side and d-
    • As an arrow over the line representing a bond, with the arrow pointing toward the more electronegative element
    • We quantify the polarity of the molecule
      • When the charges are separated by a distance a dipole is produced
Dipole moments
dipole moments1

The dipole moment is the quantitative measure of the magnitude of the dipole (m).

    • If equal and opposite charges of Q+ and Q- are separated by a distance r
      • m=Qr
      • The magnitude of the dipole moment is given in debyes.
Dipole moments
bond types and nomenclature

Previously we used two different approaches for naming binary compounds-one for ionic and one for molecular.

  • In both systems the less electronegative element is given first
  • The other element follows with the ending –ide.
  • Both approaches are sometimes used with the same substance
    • Metals with a higher oxidation numbers tend to be molecular rather than ionic
      • TiO2: titanium (IV) oxide and titanium dioxide are both correct.
Bond Types and Nomenclature