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Thought for the day:. “Think ahead. Don't let day-to-day operations drive out planning.”. Operations Operations strategies . Get an A. A Grade. To what extent, Evaluate, discuss, justify, advise, recommend. Band 6. Evaluation. Apply, Examine, Analyse, Interpret, Formulate. Band 5.

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Thought for the day:

“Think ahead. Don't let day-to-day operations drive out planning.”

get an a
Get an A



To what extent, Evaluate, discuss, justify, advise, recommend.

Band 6


Apply, Examine, Analyse, Interpret, Formulate.

Band 5

Application & Analysis

Compare, Contrast, distinguish,, construct, calculate, explain.

Band 4


Define, Clarify, describe, extract, identify, outline, recall, recount, state summarie

Band 2/3


operations strategies syllabus
operations strategies-syllabus
  • performance objectives – quality, speed, dependability, flexibility, customisation, cost
  • new product or service design and development
  • supply chain management – logistics, e-commerce, global sourcing
  • outsourcing – advantages and disadvantages
  • technology – leading edge, established
  • inventory management – advantages and disadvantages of holding stock, LIFO (last-in-first-out), FIFO (first-in-first-out), JIT (just-in-time)
  • quality management
  • ControlAssuranceimprovement
  • overcoming resistance to change – financial costs, purchasing new equipment, redundancy payments, retraining, reorganising plant layout, inertia
  • global factors – global sourcing, economies of scale, scanning and learning, research and development
operations strategies
Operations Strategies
  • To achieve operations goals and broader business goals, operations managers can apply numerous operations strategies.
  • Overview of the operations strategies

Operations strategies are based around the need to achieve performance objectives.

  • These performance objectives help define what inputs are required and influence all aspects of the transformation processes.
performance objectives
Performance objectives
  • When dealing with the operations function of business, there are particular performance objectives that are targeted by managers.
  • Performance objectives are goals that relate to particular aspects of the transformation processes.
  • These objectives or targets will be set so that the business becomes more efficient, productive and profitable.
performance objectives1
Performance objectives
  • The six main performance objectives that can be allocated to particular key performance indicators (KPIs) are:
  • • quality • speed • dependability • flexibility • customisation • cost.
performance objectives2
Performance objectives
  • – Qualityincluding:
  • • design — how well a good is made or a service is delivered• conformance—how well the good or service meets a prescribed design with a certain specification• service — how reliable, suitable and timely the service delivery is.
  • – Speed: the time it takes for the production and the operations processes to respond to changes in market demand.
performance objectives3
Performance objectives
  • –  Dependability: how consistent and reliable a business’s goods o rservices are.
  • –  Flexibility: how quickly operations processes can adjust to changes in the
  • market.
  • –  Customisation: the creation of individualised goods or services to meet the
  • specific needs of the customers.
  • –  Cost: the minimisation of expenses so that operations processes are
  • conducted as cheaply as possible.
  • • Each of the performance objectives will be allocated targets or goals.
  • #3. (pg77)
  • Complete a concept map to summarisethe three quality performance objectives.
  • ………The concept map has been started for you.
  • (pg77)
  • 4  Demonstrate what is meant by the term ‘speed’ in relation to operations processes.
  • 5  Recall three goals for speed.
  • 7  Explain the relationship between dependability and the number of warranty claims or complaints received.
  • 8  Describe how flexibility of processes is linked to market demand.
  • 9  Explain why full customisation of products is rare.
  • 10  Account for why many businesses offer mass customised products.
  •  Identify three operational strategies a business can use to reduce cost.
new product or service design and development
New product or service design and development
  • An important strategy for the operations processes of business is the creation, or design and development, of new products (goods and services).
  • The design, development, launch and sale of new products enables a business to grow and to attain a competitive advantage.
  • Activity: Note - Pg 78 – 80 – 4.2 New product or service design and development

A business needs to design and develop new products and services.

  • There are two different approaches that determine product design and
  • development:
    • –  consumer preferences
    • –  changes and innovations in technology.
  • Important factors in new product design and development include:
    • –  quality
    • –  supply chain management
    • –  capacity management
    • –  cost.

Service design and development differs from the design and development of products as services are intangible and ‘consumed’ as they are produced.

  • A service can be:
    • –  explicit — the application of time, expertise, skill and effort
    • –  implicit — the feeling of being looked after.

ACTIVITY – pg 81

  • 2 Account for why Apple is successful even though it does not base its product design and development on market research. Share your answer with the rest of the class.
  • 3  Summarisethe four factors that must be given consideration when undertaking new product design and development.
  • 4  Explain the role of the customer or client in the design and development of a service.
  • 5  (a) Compare explicit service with implicit service.
  • (b) Outline the relationship between explicit service and implicit service.
  • Extension
  • 2 We figure out what we want... So you can’t go out and ask people, you know, what’s the next big [thing]. There’s a great quote by Henry Ford, right? He said, ‘If I’d have asked my customers what they wanted, they would have told me “A faster horse”’.
  • Steve Jobs, Apple CEO.
  • Assess the accuracy of this statement.
supply chain management
Supply chain management
  • Supply chain management (SCM) involves integratingand managing the flow of supplies throughout the inputs, transformation processes (throughput and value adding) and outputs in order to best meet the needs of customers.
supply chain management1
Supply chain management
  • Note 4.3 - Pg 81 – 87 ‘4 – 5 key words under each heading’
  • Sourcing
  • -supplier rationalization
  • -Backwards vertical integration
  • -cost minimization
  • Global Sourcing
  • Ecommerce
  • -Business sourcing & ecommerce
  • - Ecommerce & the consumer
  • Logistics
  • -distribution
  • -transportation & distribution
  • -storage, warehousing & distribution centers
  • -Materials handling and packaging
  • Outsourcing involves the use of external providers to perform business activities.
  • The theory behind outsourcing is that when a service is performed by an external provider that specialises in a particular business function, it will do so at a lower cost and with a greater effectiveness than the same task done within the business hierarchy.
  • The term ‘outsourcing’ is often called business process outsourcing (BPO).
  • Business process outsourcing is a term that captures a range of outsourced business processes including:
  • operations such as manufacturing, value-adding manufactures, design, merchandising, sourcing, distribution and logistics
  • human resources including employee remuneration, employee counselling, pensions, data management, training and development, and travel and expenses management
  • administrative work including data entry and ‘back office’ work
  • information technology (IT) including data work, desktop outsourcing and network outsourcing (remotely hosted software applications)
  • Other types of outsourcing include:
  • Finance and accounting outsourcing (FAO)including preparation of financial accounts and reports, analytics, and taxation compliance
  • Knowledge process outsourcing (KPO) including the outsourcing of managerial work such as marketing strategy, public relations and management decision making
  • Legal process outsourcing (LPO) including paralegal support, legal support (including drafting, research and counsel) and other legal services (such as patents and trademarks).
the outsourcing decision
The outsourcing decision
  • Before a business decides to use outsourcing as an operations strategy, operations managers need to assess whether the use of outsourcing is viable.
the outsourcing decision1
The outsourcing decision
  • The factors that must be considered when assessing whether and when to use outsourcing are:
    • Whether to outsource or not: this requires assessing whether the use of outsourcing is cheaper and more efficient that performing the work in-house.
    • If deciding to outsource, the managers must decide which geographical location is favoured.
    • The managers must also decide which vendors to use.
    • If the decision is to outsource then details such as the management of the outsourcing contract, the length of contract, the KPIs and service levels are required.

The incidence of outsourcing, either domestically or globally, is increasing worldwide, with business structures changing to benefit from lower cost and greater efficiency.

  • Outsourcing can be highly beneficial for businesses, but it also can present a number of significant challenges or issues.
outsourcing the advantages and disadvantages
Outsourcing: the advantages and disadvantages



–  the cost and uncertainty associated with payback

–  issues with communication and language

–  loss of control of standards and information security

–  loss of corporate memory and costs associated with IT, organisational

change, redesign and management of hierarchies.

  • –  simplification
  • –  efficiency and cost savings
  • –  increased process capability
  • –  increased accountability
  • –  access to skill/resources lacking within the business
  • –  provides a capacity to focus on core competencies thus improvingin-house
  • performance and several strategic benefits.
technology leading edge established
Technology — leading edge, established
  • The thoughtful application of technology helps a business create a competitive advantage.
  • Leading edge technology —the most advanced or innovative at any point in time — can help businesses to:
    • create more products quickly and to higher standards
    • reduce waste
    • operate more effectively.
  • Established technology —that is widely accepted and used—helps to establish
  • basic standards for productivity and speed.
  • Both forms of technology give businesses efficiencies ,productivity gains and
  • a capacity to improve operations processes.

Technology — leading edge, established

  • 1  Distinguish between leading edge and established technology.
  • 2  (a) Identify two (i) leading edge and (ii) established technologies within your school.
  • (b) Deduce the benefits these technologies provide to your learning environment.
  • 3  Outline two benefits of leading edge technology.
  • 4  Explain the relationship between innovation and technology.
  • 5  ‘Businesses need to acquire leading edge technology in order to compete effectively.’ Discuss.
  • 6  Recall four forms of established technology.
inventory management
Inventory Management
  • In groups - Plan
  • You have four minutes to explain the concept of:
  • Holding stock (adv & disadv)
  • LIFO
  • FIFO
  • WAC
  • JIT
stock control1
Stock Control
  • Costs:
    • Storage costs – warehousing, etc.
    • Depreciation costs – wear and tear, perishability, shelf-life, etc.
    • Opportunity cost – zero revenue earned on stocks sitting around!
    • Administration costs – monitoring stock levels, ordering and processing, etc.
stock control2
Stock Control
  • Benefits:
    • Availability of stocks to meet customer needs
    • Buffer stocks help to cope with unplanned changes in demand
    • Smoothes out the volatility of lead times
stock control3
Stock Control

Stock Level

Maximum Stock Level

Re-order triggered

Re-order level

Minimum Stock Level

Lead Time


When the stock level reaches the re-order level, it triggers a new order. The difference between the time of re-order and delivery is the ‘lead time’.

Maximum stock levels achieved after stock delivery. Stock levels decline during production.

The Traditional Stock Control Model

  • Computerisation – The functionality and power of computers allow companies to be able to keep accurate stock control processes in place.
    • Use of bar codes has facilitated this. Allows constant flow of information to distribution centres.
  • Just-In-Time– Minimise the amount of stock held – in pure systems, the stock arrives as it is needed.
    • JIT – relies on excellent relationships with suppliers
    • JIT – requires excellent communication and infrastructure links between suppliers and businesses
why is quality a concern
Why is Quality a Concern?
  • Gives competitive advantage
  • Encourages return purchases
  • Provides customer with information and builds consumer confidence in the brand
  • Reduces costs incurred in solving post sales problems
  • Helps improve efficiency

If quality control breaks down,the cost can be severe.

Source: Photolibrary Group

quality control1
Quality Control
  • The responsibility of every member of the workforce for the quality of products and services provided by the business.
  • Emphasis on reducing defects, etc. before it gets to the final stage of production and certainly to the consumer.
tqm total quality management
TQM (Total Quality Management)
  • Name given to quality control
  • Features of TQM:
    • Quality Circles – meetings of relevant workers to discuss issues relating to maintenance and improvement of quality in the business – may also double as a form of empowerment and motivation.
    • Statistical Process Control – statistical data generated to inform the evaluation of processes within the business.
    • Zero defects – systems in place to ensure that no product leaves the business with a defect – important in building supplier relationships, image, reputation.
quality assurance1
Quality Assurance
  • The process whereby quality is at the forefront of every stage of the development, design, marketing, manufacturing and selling process.
  • ‘Quality’ is influenced by the internal philosophy of the business and the external influences -
  • Introduce the role-play activity by setting the scene of the business. Hand out the letter from the dissatisfied customer and give time for the students to read it through. Explain the nature and purpose of the role-play and divide students into groups of five - the roles are both male and female but can easily be amended if used in a single sex environment! (20 minutes)
  • Review the main points for the next lesson and ensure students come prepared for the role-play. Homework at this stage will be to familiarise themselves with a perspective of the person they are playing. (5 minutes)
  • Review the main purpose of the role-play. Allocate a period of time for the meeting to take place and set students on the task. The meeting should last for 50 minutes with someone agreeing to take minutes. (5 minutes)
  • The role-play. (50 minutes)
  • Bring role-play to an end and brief students on the task for the next lesson. (5 minutes)
  • Outline main aim of the lesson - to review the outcome of the role-play; to present the main decisions of each group; to discuss appropriate strategies for this company in the future. (5 minutes)
  • Each group to present the content of their discussions and their plan for the business. (Variable time limit depending on group numbers)
  • Begin discussion on the comparisons and contrasts between the group outcomes - arrive at an agreed overall plan culled from all the groups. (Remaining time used for this activity - if necessary a fourth lesson can be used to follow up the role-play)
global factors
Global Factors
  • 1 Recall four global factors that affect operations strategy and that provide
  • opportunities for operations managers.
  • 2 Demonstrate, using examples found in your home, how your family uses global
  • sourcing.
  • 3 State the benefits and challenges associated with global sourcing.
  • 4 Distinguish between fi nancial and contractual concerns associated with global
  • sourcing.
  • 5 Defi ne the term ‘economies of scale’.
  • 6 Explain the relationship between economies of scale and profitability.
  • 7 Clarify why an effective manager should continuously scan the business environment.
  • 8 Outline the importance of R&D as an operations strategy.
  • (pg 115)
resistance to change
resistance to change
  • Why do you like/dislike change?
  • Explain what this tells you about the strategy a manger could best use to help overcome resistance to change.
resistance to change1
resistance to change
  • Note 4.8 – overcoming resistance to change (pg 107 – 111)
global factors1
Global Factors
  • • There are four key global factors that affect operations strategy and provide
  • opportunities for operations managers: global souring, economies of scale,
  • scanning and listening, and research and development (R&D).
  • • Global sourcing is a broad reference to sourcing business supplies or services
  • without being constrained by location and it therefore includes all outsourcing.
  • • Economies of scale can lead to significant cost saving in various aspects of the
  • business enterprise.
  • • Scanning and learning can be a very valuable operations management tool as
  • it can help managers adapt best practice to the business operations.
  • • R&D can make a very big difference