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Critiques of Evolutionary Models of Division of Labor. Continued focus on pair-bonding, nuclear family, loss of estrus Women viewed as dependent on males for survival Sex for food Dependence on looks Sex objects. Critiques of Evolutionary Models of Division of Labor.
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Critiques of Evolutionary Models of Division of Labor • Continued focus on pair-bonding, nuclear family, loss of estrus • Women viewed as dependent on males for survival • Sex for food • Dependence on looks • Sex objects
Critiques of Evolutionary Models of Division of Labor • Ethnocentric - Western male bias • Teleological - present projected into past • Ethnographic & archaeological evidence • Female mobility • Female hunting • Male gathering • Popularity of biological/evolutionary explanations • Rationale for status quo • Sensationalism in popular press • Based upon Western gender relations
Sociobiology and the ‘Selfish Gene’ • Natural selection through individuals, not groups • Robert Trivers (1972) & Richard Dawkins (1976) • Differences in parental investment different reproductive strategies • “Battle of the Sexes” • Males programmed for promiscuity • Females concerned with long-term commitment • “Coy” females and philandering males • Critique • Ethnocentric – based on Western model • Rationale for double standard • Ethnographic evidence • Variable views of male and female sexuality
Marlene Zuk – Feminist Biologist • Use of animal models in evolutionary theory • Extreme variation among animals • Precludes simplistic generalizations about sex roles • Argues against gender stereotypes • Maternal ‘instinct’ • Harlows’ experiments with monkeys • Mothering is learned, not instinctive • Natural ≠ good • Use of cultural terms to describe animal behavior • Anthropomorphizing tautology • Cultural prejudices & stereotypes
Evolutionary Psychology • Multiple, rather than single gene • Brain evolved in separate parts • Environment of evolutionary adaptedness (EEA) • Evolved brain interacts with modern environment • Both ‘nature’ & ‘nurture’