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Information Processing in Children Professor. Yarub Khyon Nov. 2007. ACOMPARISON BETWEEN CHILDREN AND ADULTS. Brain and Computer. Brain Computer 1- Memory Structure Hardware 2- Processing of Info. Software Strategies
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ACOMPARISON BETWEEN CHILDREN AND ADULTS
1- Memory Structure Hardware
2- Processing ofInfo. Software
3- Working memory Desktop
4- Long term memory Files
5- Memory Capacity Ram
3-Stimulus identification and Encoding
4-Working memory( short-term memory)
6-Decision making RT &MT
7-Motor programs and execution
8-Motor control (brain and body)
A-Prepare senses for the incoming stimuli
B-Put senses on alert
Divided attention-attend to two stimuli in the same time
Some times leads to interference it is a sword with two edges when
When we try to attend to two items from the same class
One channel hypothesis
When we can attend to two stimuli and respond in the same time
When one of them we can do it automatically
1-Younger& older adults(50 years) perform in a similar manner. But as a task difficulty increases, younger response do better.
2-Because of reduction of amount of processing, children have less attention span (length+ focus).
3-Children allocate their attention equally between two tasks; whereas older children recognize the significance of the primary task.
Def. Concentration on one item and ignore the others.
1-With age; children show better control of selective attention.
2- Younger children are easily distracted than older children
3-It improve until early adolescence. The improvement due to experience
Def. Evaluation the stimulus( speed and direction)
Encoding - labeling and putthe evaluated item in the a relative file.
Best information when it present as a chunks rather than present as a bits.
1-Encoding improve with age. Older adults show less encoding than younger adults.
2-Peack of encoding during twenties.
One month Three months One Year
Equity of Vision
Def. A storage of past experience.
TWO TYPES OF USING MEMORY
1-RECOGNITION MEMORY- Proper stimulus among deferent stimuli. (multiple choice test).
2- RECALL MEMORY- Stimulus is not presented (assay test).
Palace of mental work.
A-30 seconds storage
B-Has a capacity of 5-9 items. But grouping separate items in a process known as chunking (Tel. No.).
1-It improves markedly up to early adolescence. The largest changes from 3-7 years
2-Memory span increases from about 2 digits in 2+3 year old to about 5 digits in 7 years old.
3- Memory span remained relatively constant from twentieth through fifties, then dropped only about one item following those years.
4-More skilled athlete has the ability to recall more items than less skilled athlete in the relative skill. Example-Gymnastics judge tests.
1- Acquisition of information Preschool
2-Understanding the information 1-4 grades
3-Basics of information 5-12 grades
4-Analizing the information under graduate studies
5-Hypothesis for knew information graduate studies
Def. Storage of more permanent information
1-Recognition memory begins shortly after birth-new borne recognize his mom.
2- Recall memory emerge in the second 6 months of life
3-Capacity developed with age until adulthood
4-Older adults are less able to recall details of past event
Difficulty with both encoding and retrieving information from LTM.
Def. Interaction between stimulus and relative past experience
Reaction time RT - The time between stimulus appearance and the first movement.
Two types of RT
Simple RT-Response to one presented stimulus.
Choice RT- Response to more than one stimulus
Movement time MT-The required to complete a motor response
RT+MT= Response time
Improve with age and reach the peak in young adulthood (twenties)
Decline with older age as measured by RT
Decrement among older ages on timed speed task
Motor program-Memory representation of a class of action
Schema theory-A set of rules and concepts to guide performance
major prediction of this theory is: Increasing variability of practice
It will result in increase transfer to a novel task of the same movement class.
1-Schemata of children are easily developed.
2-Variability in practice more effective for children than it is for adults Why
Because they have considerably more to learn.
3-Older adults are slower, more variant, and less smooth than younger adults are
4-Older adult lacked programming control.
Def. Interaction between nervous system and periphery, limbs and body segments.
Center nervous system through motor programs control groups of muscles instead of individual muscles.
Grouping of muscles with associated joints have been termed- Coordination
1-During the early stages of development neuronal circuits are not precisely wired to execute specific skills.
2-As the infant progresses from one level of skill to the next, their phase shifts in which new movement patterns are explored and selected.