Ecology- is the study of the relationships between organisms and their environment. • Consists of: plants, animals, soil, sunlight, temperature, amount of water. • Ecologists- are the scientists that study these interactions. Ecology
Environment- everything that affects an organism. (BOTH: biotic & abiotic factors) environment
Structure of the Environment: • Organism • Population • Community • Ecosystem • Biosphere
1. First level is an individual Organism. 1. Organism
2. Population 2. The second level is made up of a group of similar organisms who share the same area.
3. The third level, a Communityis made up of different populations that live in the same area. • How the deer interact with the plants. • How the cougars interact with the deer. 3. Community
4. The fourth level, an Ecosystem is a community together with its nonliving (abiotic) environment. • Consists of: plants, animals, soil, sunlight, temperature, amount of water. 4. Ecosystem
5. Biosphere – is made up of all ecosystems on Earth 5. Biosphere
Producers • Producers use sunlight directly to make food. Ex) plants. • Photosynthesis is the process through which plants make their food ; using sunlight, water & carbon dioxide.
Consumers • Consumer- Organisms that cannot make their own energy. • Consumers get their energy by eating other organisms (producers & consumers).
types of consumers: • Herbivore – a consumer that eats plants. • Omnivore – a consumer that eats both plants and animals. • Carnivore – a consumer that eats animals. • Scavengers – animals that feed on the bodies of dead animals.
Decomposers – organisms that get energy by breaking down the remains of other animals. They get energy by reducing them into simpler forms of matter (h20 and CO2). Decomposers
Food Chain- a simple model of the feeding relationship in our ecosystem. Energy flow in ecosystems…
Food Web- a series of overlapping food chains in an ecosystem. Energy flow in ecosystems… “Desert Food Web”
Mullet Phytoplankton Tern “Gulf Coast marine Food Web” Manta Ray Zooplankton Great White Shark Whale Barnacle Scorpionfish