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The Levels of Communication. Adapted from Mastering Public Speaking, by George L. Grice and John F. Skinner. To Communicate . . . The Latin verb communicare means “to make common to many, share, impart, divide.”. Simply stated . . . .

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the levels of communication

The Levels of Communication

Adapted from Mastering Public Speaking,

byGeorge L. Grice and John F. Skinner

to communicate
To Communicate . . .
  • The Latin verb communicare means “to make common to many, share, impart, divide.”
simply stated
Simply stated . . .
  • When you communicate you share, or make common, your knowledge and ideas with someone else.
  • Communication, then, is the sharing of meaning bysendingand receivingsymbolic cues.
charles ogen i a richard s triangle of meaning
Charles Ogen & I. A. Richard’s Triangle of Meaning
  • The interpreter
    • The person who is communicating, with words or symbols
  • The symbol
    • Anything to which people attach or assign a meaning
  • The referent
    • The object or idea for which the symbol stands
slide5

The Triangle of Meaning

Interpreter

(Speaker or Listener)

………

Referent

Symbol

intrapersonal communication
Intrapersonal Communication
  • The type of communication a person has with himself, thus the prefix “intra-” which means within.
  • As soon as a human being awakens, he begins an internal thought process and dialogue, almost always silent, but sometimes aloud.
interpersonal communication
Interpersonal Communication
  • Interpersonal communication takes place between two people.
  • This type of communication varies depending on the relationship between the two individuals.
group communication
Group Communication
  • Group communication occurs when three or more individuals, who have a common goal, interact either formally or informally.
public communication
Public Communication
  • Public communication takes place when one or more individuals communicate with a large group in a more “one-directional” approach.
five levels of public speaking5
Five Levels of Public Speaking:
  • 5) mass communication
mass communication
Mass Communication
  • Mass communication occurs when extremely large groups receive information, like a television audience watching a news broadcast, as well as the intermittent commercial advertising.
five levels of public speaking6
Five Levels of Public Speaking:
  • 1) intrapersonal
  • 2) interpersonal
  • 3) group
  • 4) public
  • 5) mass communication
linear model of communication1
Linear Model of Communication
  • The speaker—the sender, the encoder, or source of the message.
linear model of communication2
Linear Model of Communication
  • Encoding—the process of putting ideas into symbols to carry a message.

The Speech Text

linear model of communication3
Linear Model of Communication
  • Message—ideas communicated verbally and nonverbally.
linear model of communication4
Linear Model of Communication
  • Listener—the receiver or decoder of the message
linear model of communication5
Linear Model of Communication
  • Decoding—the process of attaching meanings to symbols received.

Decoding

linear model of communication6
Linear Model of Communication
  • The speaker—the sender, the encoder, or source of the message.
  • Encoding—the process of putting ideas into symbols to carry a message.
  • Message—ideas communicated verbally and nonverbally.
  • Listener—the receiver or decoder of the message
  • Decoding—the process of attaching meanings to symbols received.
problems with linear model of communication
Problems with Linear Model of Communication
  • #1—The assumption that a person is either the sender or a receiver of messages.
  • Actually, we perform both of these roles simultaneously.
problems with linear model of communication1
Problems with Linear Model of Communication
  • #2—The suggestion that communication involves only one message.
  • Actually, there are as many messages as there are communicators involved, and the message the sender intends is never identical to the one received.
interactive model of communication
Interactive Model of Communication
  • When scholars began to see the limitations of the linear model of communication, they added other components to the speaker, message, and listener making a total of 7 components:

channel, feedback, environment, and noise

interactive model of communication1
Interactive Model of Communication
  • Channel—the medium, or the way the message is sent.
interactive model of communication2
Interactive Model of Communication
  • Feedback—includes all messages, verbal and nonverbal, sent by listeners to speakers.
interactive model of communication3
Interactive Model of Communication
  • Environment—the physical setting and the occasion for communication.
interactive model of communication4
Interactive Model of Communication
  • Noise—anything that distracts from effective communication; some form of noise is always present.
interactive model of communication5
Interactive Model of Communication
  • Channel—the medium, or the way the message is sent.
  • Feedback—includes all messages, verbal and nonverbal, sent by listeners to speakers.
  • Environment—the physical setting and the occasion for communication.
  • Noise—anything that distracts from effective communication; some form of noise is always present.
noise
Noise
  • Physical noise—distractions originating in the communication environment.
noise1
Noise
  • Physiological noise—distractions originating in the bodies of communicators—cold, headache, hunger, fatigue.
noise2
Noise
  • Psychological noise—distractions originating in the thoughts of communicators—anxiety, daydreaming, worry.
noise3
Noise
  • Physical noise—distractions originating in the communication environment.
  • Physiological noise—distractions originating in the bodies of communicators—cold, headache, hunger, fatigue.
  • Psychological noise—distractions originating in the thoughts of communicators—anxiety, daydreaming, worry.
slide38

CHANNEL

Message

SPEAKER

LISTENER

Decoder

Encoder

Environment

Environment

Noise

Noise

Noise

Decoder

Encoder

Feedback

Interactive Model of Communication

CHANNEL

the levels of communication1

The Levels of Communication

Adapted from Mastering Public Speaking,

byGeorge L. Grice and John F. Skinner