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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Teoria de Piaget del Desarrollo Cognitivo PowerPoint Presentation
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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Teoria de Piaget del Desarrollo Cognitivo

Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Teoria de Piaget del Desarrollo Cognitivo

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Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Teoria de Piaget del Desarrollo Cognitivo

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  1. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Teoria de Piaget del Desarrollo Cognitivo Théorie de Piaget du Cognitive Development (Aportaciones fundamentales y críticas) Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  2. Introducción La presentación de un resumen de la teoría clásica de Piaget en formato ppt es de indudable interés para profesores y alumnos de psicología evolutiva en diferentes campos y muy especialmente en el mundo educativo. Los textos que se presentan a continuación son una recopilación, selección y organización de más de 30 archivos en formato ppt (power point) en lengua castellana, inglés y francés. Por este motivo el lector encontrará fichas en los 3 idiomas. Todos ellos proceden de fuentes propias y de internet. Estos últimos son de acceso público. En todo momento se ha buscado el rigor y la exhaustividad de las presentaciones. Por esta razón, el lector encontrará algún material redundante pero con presentación diferente. Pensamos que el lector como miembro de la comunidad intelectual puede sugerirnos nuevas fichas o detectar errores en las existentes, debido a lo cual nos gustaría que nos enviase los comentarios y sugerencias, compartiendo con nosotros la ampliación de esta presentación.

  3. El Modelo Piagetiano y su planteamiento epistemológico • Factores que determinan el desarrollo según Piaget (1966) • 1. Biológicos. Ej: Maduración del sistema nervioso • 2. Factores de equilibración y autorregulación. Ej:Tendencia a la equilibración. Formas secuenciales en la coordinación general de las acciones de los individuos que interactuan con su medio físico. • 3. Factores sociales generales (experiencia física y social). Ej: Interacciones entre individuos • 4. Transmisión educativa y cultural Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  4. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Describe intellectual development according to Piaget, including a discussion of both the process and the stages of development. Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  5. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development • Piaget believed that “children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world” Developed by W. Huitt, 1999 Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  6. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was one of the 20th centuries most influential researchers in the area of developmental psychology. Piaget’s Theory He was a child prodigy who published his first article in a refereed journal at the age of 11. Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  7. Piaget’s Theory Piaget originally trained in the areas of biology and philosophy and considered himself a “genetic epistimologist.” He was mainly interested in the biological influences on “how we come to know.” Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  8. Piaget’s Theory Piaget believed that what distinguishes human beings from other animals is our ability to do “abstract symbolic reasoning.” Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  9. Piaget’s Theory Piaget's views are often compared with those of Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934), who looked more to social interaction as the primary source of cognition and behavior. This is somewhat similar to the distinctions made between Freud and Erikson in terms of the development of personality. Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  10. Piaget’s Theory While working in Binet’s test lab in Paris, Piaget became interested in how children think. He noticed that young children's answers were qualitatively different than older children. This suggested to him that the younger children were not less knowledgeable but, instead, answered the questions differently than their older peers because they thought differently. Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  11. Piaget’s Theory This implies that human development is qualitative (changes in kind) rather than quantitative (changes in amount). Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  12. Piaget’s Theory There are two major aspects to his theory: • the process of coming to know and • the stages we move through as we gradually acquire this ability. Piaget’s training as a biologist influenced both aspects of his theory. Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  13. Process of Cognitive Development Schemas: Assimilation and Accommodation Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  14. Process of Cognitive Development Schemas As a biologist, Piaget was interested in how an organism adapts to its environment (Piaget described this ability as intelligence.) Behavior is controlled through mental organizations called schemes that the individual uses to represent the world and designate action. Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  15. Schema example:Object permanence Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  16. Schema example:Volume permanence Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  17. Where do schemas come from? • Maturationist hypothesis: they are preprogrammed and simply develop • Behaviorist hypothesis: no mental structures are necessary, all learning is the forming of associations • Piaget rejected both, and devoted his career to researching the developmental origins of each schema Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  18. Process of Cognitive Development This adaptation is driven by a biological drive to obtain balance between schemes and the environment (equilibration). Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  19. Process of Cognitive Development Piaget hypothesized that infants are born with schemes operating at birth that he called "reflexes." In other animals, these reflexes control behavior throughout life. However, in human beings as the infant uses these reflexes to adapt to the environment, these reflexes are quickly replaced with constructed schemes. Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  20. Process of Cognitive Development Piaget described two processes used by the individual in its attempt to adapt: • assimilationand • accomodation. Both of these processes are used thoughout life as the person increasingly adapts to the environment in a more complex manner. Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  21. Process of Cognitive Development The process of using or transforming the environment so that it can be placed in preexisting cognitive structures. Assimilation Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  22. Process of Cognitive Development Example: an infant uses a sucking schema that was developed by sucking on a small bottle when attempting to suck on a larger bottle. Assimilation Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  23. Process of Cognitive Development The process of changing cognitive structures in order to accept something from the environment. Accomodation Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  24. Process of Cognitive Development Example: the infant modifies a sucking schema developed by sucking on a pacifier to one that would be successful for sucking on a bottle. Accomodation Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  25. Assimilation and Accommodation • Development is driven by a continuing equilibrium between assimilation and accommodation Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  26. Schemas: Assimilation and Accommodation • A schema “always includes both assimilation and accommodation” • …but in different ratios, resulting in: imitative, ludic, or adaptive schemas • Intelligence is the equilibrium between assimilation and accommodation Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  27. Assimilation Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  28. Accommodation Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  29. Process of Cognitive Development Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  30. Play as Assimilation and Accommodation • The child at pretend often imposes a schema on the world (assimilation) • Children at play also imitate something they’ve observed or repeat a past activity (accommodation) • Play contributes to development because of this tension between assimilation and accommodation Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  31. Process of Cognitive Development Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  32. Process of Cognitive Development As schemes become increasingly more complex (i.e., responsible for more complex behaviors) they are termed structures. As one's structures become more complex, they are organized in a hierarchical manner (i.e., from general to specific). Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  33. Process of Cognitive Development Symbolic schemes – internal mental symbols that one uses to represent aspects of experience. Cognitive operation – an internal mental activity that one performs on objects or thoughts. Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  34. How We Gain Knowledge: Piaget's Cognitive Processes (cont.) Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  35. ¿Cómo se aprende?: Perspectiva genético-cognitiva del aprendizaje • - Desarrollo Aprendizaje Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  36. Dinámicos y cambiantes Esquemas ¿Cómo conocemos y aprendemos? Acción • Proceso de enseñanza y aprendizaje Estadios o niveles de competencia cognitiva Dllo Cognitivo Maduración Construcción de aprendizajes 2. Equilibración y desequilibración Aprenziaje por descubrimiento Sensoriomotriz, Preop…. Asimilación y acomodación a través de esquemas 1. Factores biológicos Asimilamos mediante esquemas los objetos y acomodamos los esquemas a los objetos Si el sujeto es consciente de que no puede asimilar el objeto nuevo entonces se produce desequilibrio cognitivo y aparecen esquemas nuevos Un conejo puede asimilar una col pero una col no puede asimilar a un conejo Ej: El niño simbólico da vida propia a los objetos inanimados Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  37. La relevancia de la obra de Piaget: el autor Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  38. Piaget • A radical claim: Piaget didn’t really care about children • Piaget cared about basic philosophical questions • The study of developing children allows an empirical evaluation of philosophical questions Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  39. The Philosophical Context • Where does knowledge come from? • Behaviorists are empiricists—all knowledge derives from experience • The rationalists reject empiricism and argue that some knowledge is innate or a priori: it does not require experience • Kant’s synthesis proposed a priori basic categories • Piaget proposed that these basic categories are not innate but are learned, but not in the way that behaviorists believed Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  40. Key Influences: Biology • Piaget’s degrees were in biology • The influence of Darwin: development proceeds in stages • Piaget’s central question: How did human cognition evolve from lower animals? Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  41. Range of topics studied byPiaget Infancy - adolescence geometry perception number memory reasoning physics space chance time causality science moral judgment consciousness play possibility and necessity dreams imitation Cognitive development Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  42. JEAN PIAGET (1896-1980) Number of publications (excluding translations) and span of writing career 200 Articles Books 150 100 50 • Piaget (1896 - 1980) has had the greatest influence on developmental psychology to date • this is partly to do with the enormity of output…. Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  43. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  44. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development Stage 1: Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2yrs) Stage 2: Preoperational Stage (2-7yrs) Stage 3: Concrete Operations (7-11yrs) Stage 4: Formal Operations (11-on) Invariant developmental sequence! Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  45. Typical Age Range Description of Stage Developmental Phenomena Birth to nearly 2 years Sensorimotor Experiencing the world through senses and actions (looking, touching, mouthing) • Object permanence • Stranger anxiety About 2 to 6 years Preoperational Representing things with words and images but lacking logical reasoning • Pretend play • Egocentrism • Language development About 7 to 11 years Concrete operational Thinking logically about concrete events; grasping concrete analogies and performing arithmetical operations • Conservation • Mathematical transformations About 12 through adulthood Formal operational Abstract reasoning • Abstract logic • Potential for moral reasoning Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  46. Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive DevelopmentStage 1: Sensorimotor Stage (Birth-2yrs) Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  47. Nos ubicamos en el sujeto.Pautas motrices Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  48. Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  49. Piaget: Sensorimotor Stage (Infancy) Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com

  50. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget’s Theory of Cognitive Development Comentarios y aportaciones nuevas a: jopriet@gmail.com