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Evidenced-Based Practices in Juvenile Corrections. Clarifying Terms. Best Practices are often based on collective experience and wisdom of the field rather than scientifically tested knowledge What Works implies linkage to general outcomes but does not specify the kind of outcomes desired

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clarifying terms
Clarifying Terms
  • Best Practices are often based on collective experience and wisdom of the field rather than scientifically tested knowledge
  • What Works implies linkage to general outcomes but does not specify the kind of outcomes desired
  • Evidenced-Based Practice implies definable outcomes, is measurable and is defined by practical realities
what are evidenced based practices ebp
What Are Evidenced Based Practices (EBP)?

EBP focuses on two main questions:

  • What “works”?
    • Which types of programming, policies and practices have been effective in producing positive outcomes (recidivism, post-release employment, cost-benefit)?
  • For whom does it “work”?
    • Are there certain types of offenders for whom a certain type of program or practice is more or less effective?
what are evidenced based practices
What Are Evidenced Based Practices?

In corrections: Practices in which an agency

systematically finds, appraises, and applies the

most current and valid research findings as the

basis for developing and implementing targeted

interventions and programming proven to

reduce recidivism.

research foundation for evidenced based practices
Research Foundation for Evidenced Based Practices
  • In the 1980’s research began to appear supporting the notion that treatment works to reduce recidivism
  • 30+ years of over 500 quality research studies
  • Many sophisticated meta-analyses
  • Canada, Europe, and United States
what works
What Works
  • Deliver services to higher-risk offenders
  • Target criminogenic needs – those factors that can change over time
  • Cognitive-behavioral interventions work best with appropriate offenders
  • Treatment programs are matched to responsivity
what does not work with offenders
What Does Not Work with Offenders
  • Targeting low-risk offenders
  • Deterrence alone without treatment
  • Targeting non-criminogenic needs; i.e., anxiety, depression, self-esteem
  • Scared straight approaches
  • Insight oriented, psychodynamic, non-directive, or client-centered therapies
  • Lack of direct training procedures with an absence of modeling and role-playing
essentials of ebp
Essentials of EBP
  • Measure Outcomes
  • Engage Ongoing Support
  • Increase Positive Reinforcement
  • Cognitive Behavioral Interventions
  • Target Intervention
  • Enhance Intrinsic Motivation
  • Assess Offender Risk/Needs
i assess offender risk needs
I. Assess Offender Risk/Needs
  • Assess Offender Risk/Needs
i assess offender risk need
I. Assess Offender Risk & Need
  • Dynamic risk factors are linked to criminal behavior and can be changed
    • Improved self-control
    • Increased positive support networks
    • Engagement in pro-social values
    • Increased pro-social behaviors
    • Substance abuse treatment
    • Reconnection with primary/healthy relationships
i assess offender risk need1
I. Assess Offender Risk & Need
  • Static risk factors that do not predict criminal behavior
    • Age
    • Criminal or delinquent history
    • Offense
i assess offender risks and needs
I. Assess Offender Risks and Needs

How do we identity Risk predictors?

  • Youth Level-of-Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI)
  • Juvenile Detention Risk Management
  • Juvenile Sex offender assessments
  • Chemical assessments
i assess offender risk need2
I. Assess Offender Risk & Need

How do we identify these Need predictors?

  • Massachusetts Youth Screening Inventory (MAYSI-2 for mental health)
  • Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT)
  • Substance Use Screenings
  • Gambling Screen
  • Personal Experience Screening Questionnaire (PESQ)
i assess offender risks and needs1
I. Assess Offender Risks and Needs
  • Actuarial risk to reoffend
  • Identifies criminogenic needs
i risk assessment implementation
I. Risk Assessment Implementation
  • Offenders under supervision are assessed to determine their likelihood to reoffend
ii enhance intrinsic motivation
II. Enhance Intrinsic Motivation
  • Enhance Intrinsic Motivation
  • Assess Offender Risk/Need
ii enhance intrinsic motivation1
II. Enhance Intrinsic Motivation

“The only people who truly welcome change are wet babies”

- Harvey Skinner

ii enhance intrinsic motivation2
II. Enhance Intrinsic Motivation

Motivational Interviewing

  • Based on Prochaska’s stages of change:
  • Establishes rapport
  • Assesses readiness to change
  • Centers on engagement and

empowerment

  • Utilizes the change process
ii enhance offender motivation
II. Enhance Offender Motivation
  • For lasting change to occur, there needs to be a level of intrinsic motivation
  • Research strongly suggest that motivational interviewing (MI) effectively enhances motivation for initiating and maintaining change behavior.
iii target interventions
III. Target Interventions
  • Target Interventions
  • Enhance Intrinsic Motivation
  • Assess Offender Risk Need
iii target interventions1
III. Target Interventions
  • Risk
  • Need
  • Responsivity
iii target interventions risk
III. Target InterventionsRisk
  • Determine the risk to re-offend through use of validated, reliable “risk assessment” tools
  • Work with moderate to high risk offenders; leave low risk offenders alone
  • Use interventions that directly address offender characteristics associated with criminal behavior
iii target interventions need
III. Target InterventionsNeed
  • Criminogenic needs can change over time
  • Anti-social attitudes, anti-social associates, anti-social thinking patterns, anti-social behaviors i.e., substance abuse
  • Criminogenic needs are identified through assessment tools and targeted through interventions
iii target interventions responsivity
III. Target InterventionsResponsivity
  • Responsive to temperament, learning style, gender, culture when assigning programs
  • Matching offender to the appropriate interventions given their risk level and crimnogenic needs
iii target interventions2
III. Target Interventions
  • Relies on motivational interviewing
  • Targets risk factors that lead to recidivism
  • SMART case plan goals are:
    • Small, measureable, attainable, realistic, timely
  • Strength-based
  • Gender, culturally, developmentally responsive
  • Follows offender through the system
iv use cognitive behavioral interventions
IV. Use Cognitive Behavioral Interventions
  • Use Cognitive Behavioral Interventions
  • Target Interventions
  • Enhance Intrinsic Motivation
  • Assess Offender Risk/Needs
iv use cognitive behavioral interventions1
IV. Use Cognitive Behavioral Interventions
  • Treatment Principles:
    • Treatment, particularly cognitive-behavioral (CBT) is most effective with offenders
    • Proactive and strategic case planning
    • Targeted, timely treatment provides the greatest long term benefit
    • Applying treatment to lower risk offenders can have detrimental effects
iv use cognitive behavioral interventions2
IV. Use Cognitive Behavioral Interventions
  • Target criminal thinking
  • Use cognitive-behavioral learning approaches
    • Modeling
    • Reinforcement
    • Role play
    • Coaching
    • Structured curricula
  • Targeted treatment
    • Sex offender treatment
    • Chemical dependency treatment
v measure outcomes
V. Measure Outcomes
  • Measure Outcomes
  • Provide Ongoing Support
  • Increase Positive Reinforcement
  • Cognitive Behavioral Interventions
  • Target Interventions
  • Enhance Intrinsic Motivation
  • Assess Offender Risk/Needs
v measurement
V. Measurement
  • Are there more effective ways to use taxpayer $ to achieve particular public outcomes
  • Recidivism is the gold standard for better and for worse
  • All the EBPs are shown to

reduce recidivism

v measures are tied to mission
V. Measures are Tied to Mission

Protect the public by:

  • Providing for core correctional care
  • Holding offenders accountable
  • Changing offender behavior
  • Restoring justice to victims
v examples of corrections outcome measures
V. Examples of Corrections Outcome Measures
  • Recidivism while under supervision
  • Reduction in risk assessment score
  • Restitution ordered and collected
  • Recidivism three years post release
v types of measurement
V. Types of Measurement
  • Program Evaluation
    • Outcome Measures
    • Performance Measures
  • Research using quasi or experimental design
  • Cost Analysis
    • Cost Utility Analysis
    • Cost Effectiveness Analysis
    • Cost/Benefit Analysis
v cost benefit analysis
V. Cost/Benefit Analysis

Evaluation of alternatives according to a comparison of both their costs and benefits when each is measured in monetary terms.

  • Rigorous economic methodology using compounding and discounting
  • Alternatives must show benefits in excess of costs
  • Useful when benefits can be readily converted into monetary values
keys to successful implementation of ebp s
Keys to Successful Implementation of EBP’s

Outside In Approach

  • Adopting research-supported program models
  • Minimizes “re-inventing the wheel”
  • Must Implement with fidelity
keys to successful implementation of ebp s1
Keys to Successful Implementation of EBP’s

Inside Out Approach

  • Develop and maintain internal information controls when implementing new practices
  • Offender measures
  • Operational measures
  • Staff measures
washington institute of public policy www wsipp wa gov
Washington Institute of Public Policywww.wsipp.wa.gov
  • 2006 Washington State faced need to construct several new prisons
  • Legislature directed Institute to explore the use of evidenced-based options to reduce future need & crime rates
  • Systematic review of 545 comparison group evaluations of adult, juvenile, prevention programs to reduce crime
  • Estimated costs and benefits and developed portfolios
evidenced based programs in juvenile
Evidenced Based Programs in Juvenile
  • Cognitive-Behavioral Curricula
  • Coordination of Services
  • Functional Family Therapy
  • Family Integrated Transitions
  • Multi-Systemic Therapy
  • Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care
cognitive behavioral interventions aggression replacement training art
Cognitive Behavioral InterventionsAggression Replacement Training (ART)
  • An example of cognitive-behavioral curriculum
  • 10 weeks, 30 hours
  • Groups of 10 moderate to high risk youth
  • 3 times/week
  • Instructor and co-instructor/session
cognitive behavioral interventions art
Cognitive Behavioral Interventions (ART)
  • Improved attendance with transportation incentives and community locations
  • Provided by probation officers or private contractors
  • Anger control, life skills, moral reasoning
  • Best used when all staff are trained
  • Program Cost: $785/youth Benefits Minus Costs: $14,660
coordination of services cos
Coordination of Services (COS)
  • 13 hours of educational classes
  • Groups of 10 low risk juvenile offenders and parents
  • Community outreach component to enable coordination
  • Delivered by probation officers
  • Program Cost: $229/youth Benefits minus Cost: $5493
functional family therapy fft
Functional Family Therapy (FFT)
  • Structured home-based family intervention for high risk youth
  • Trained FFT therapists with caseloads of 10 to 12 families
  • 12 visits during a 12 week period
  • FFT will reduce recidivism if properly implemented
  • Program Cost: $2,609 Benefits Minus Costs: $33,632
family integrated transitions fit
Family Integrated Transitions (FIT)
  • Structured home-based family intervention
  • High-risk youth with the co-occurring mental illness and CD disorders
  • Integrates Multi-Systemic Therapy, Motivational Enhancement Therapy, Relapse Prevention, and Dialectical Behavior Therapy
  • Caseloads of 4 to 6 families for a 20 week period
family integrated transitions fit1
Family Integrated Transitions (FIT)
  • 24/7 availability by therapist
  • FIT therapist participates on a team with clinicians, psychiatrist
  • Program Cost: $9,938 Benefits Minus Costs: $36,117
multi systemic therapy mst
Multi-Systemic Therapy (MST)
  • Structured home-based family intervention for high-risk youth
  • Trained MST therapists with caseload of 4 to 6 families for 16 week period
  • 24/7 availability by therapist
  • Therapist participates on team of clinicians
  • Program Cost: $6,416 Benefits Minus Costs: $17,440
multidimensional treatment foster care mtfc
Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC)
  • Delinquents with chronic disruptive behavior
  • Used as an alternative to placement
  • Foster parents - highly trained, ongoing support,
  • $43.70 savings for every dollar spend
victim offender mediation vom
Victim Offender Mediation (VOM)
  • Both offender and the victim agree to a face-to-face meeting with a trained, neutral, mediator
  • Purpose is to discuss the effects of the crime, and to determine what can be done to make amends to the victim and the community
  • Program Cost: $880 Benefits Minus Costs: $7,067
keys to successful implementation of ebp s2
Keys to Successful Implementation of EBP’s
  • Cost shifting
  • Fidelity
  • Training, training, and re-training
  • Organizational reinforcement
slide51
Presented by

Deputy Commissioner Chris Bray, Ph.D., LP

Community Services Division

October 2010

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