nick feamster lixin gao jennifer rexford hong zhang 2007 1 4 n.
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Nick Feamster, Lixin Gao, Jennifer Rexford ------ Hong Zhang 2007.1.4 PowerPoint Presentation
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Nick Feamster, Lixin Gao, Jennifer Rexford ------ Hong Zhang 2007.1.4. Introduction Concurrent Architectures Better Than One How Cabo Works Related Work and Conclusion My problems and ideas. Motivation Basic Idea of Cabo Precedence and Circumstances.

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Nick Feamster, Lixin Gao, Jennifer Rexford ------ Hong Zhang 2007.1.4

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  • Concurrent Architectures Better Than One
  • How Cabo Works
  • Related Work and Conclusion
  • My problems and ideas

Hong Zhang


Basic Idea of Cabo

Precedence and Circumstances

Hong Zhang


The Internet is relatively resistant to fundamental change: coordination

    • ISPs: under pressure to offer “value added” services
    • Researchers: under pressure to justify there work
  • “Focusing on incremental deployment may lead to solutions where each step along the path makes sense, but the end state is wrong.”

Hong Zhang


Infrastructure Providers

    • Who deploy and maintain network equipment
  • Service Providers
    • Who deploy network protocols and offer end-to-end services
  • “Rather than simply serving as an evaluation platform for selecting a single ‘winning’ architecture, support for virtual networks itself should be the architecture.”

Hong Zhang


Precedence: unbundling the value chain

    • Airline and Airport
    • Automobile
  • Consistent with new internet business model
    • Co-location Center and Carrier Hotel: locating the physical equipment of many different ISPs in the same building for lower cost
  • Some ISPs are already pushing the trend

Hong Zhang

Cabo Architecture

The Benefits of Cabo

Hong Zhang


Infrastructure Provider

  • Service Provider
  • Virtual node
    • a subset of the underlying node resources.
  • Virtual link
    • a path through the infrastructure network and includes a portion of the resources.
  • Virtual network
    • consists of virtual nodes and links that belong to the same service provider

Hong Zhang


Better Network Services

    • End-to-end network services (?)
    • Customized Protocols
    • Co-location for expanded network presence
  • More robust management and operations
    • Testing and deploying new protocols
    • Protection against misconfiguration (?)
    • Accountability at every layer (?)

Hong Zhang

Supporting Concurrent Networks

Instantiating Virtual Networks

Discovering Physical Infrastructure

Hong Zhang


Virtual Routers

    • Developing technology now
    • Some router vendors claim that it can increase network reliability
  • Virtual Links
    • Look much like the tunnels that exist in today’s VPNs
  • Scheduling
    • Schedule access to physical resources, such as CPU, memory, disk, and link bandwidth
    • Have related works

Hong Zhang


Interface and bootstrapping

    • The ISPs would be able to specify their requirements in terms of specific properties
    • Allow ISPs to load software on the virtual nodes once they have access to them
  • Signaling
    • Cabo could ultimately provide complete connectivity

Hong Zhang


Accounting and admission control

    • Perform admission control on virtual networks
    • Like RSVP: A New Resource reSerVation Protocol
  • Virtual network embedding
    • Satisfy an ISP’s request for a physical mapping, making efficient use of available physical resources
    • NP-hard, but have some efficient ways

Hong Zhang


Topology discovery

    • Physical nodes flood their identities with unique identifiers to a decision element
    • Neighboring nodes re-forward these identifiers
    • Every physical endpoint must be uniquely named
  • Notification of topology changes
    • If an interface fails, the incident physical node must notify each of the virtual nodes
    • Run a simple heartbeat protocol to detect physical link failure
    • A physical node failure is similar to the failure of all of the incident physical links

Hong Zhang

Related work

Deployment of Cabo


Hong Zhang


Equinix and Internap

    • Only control the first ISP along the path
  • “Routing as a Service” and OverQos
    • Similar mechanisms may prove useful for constructing virtual links in Cabo
  • VPN
    • Some of the functionality required by Cabo is provided by today’s layer 3 VPNs
  • GENI and VINI
    • Focus on support for experiments
    • Hope to use VINI as an environment for evaluating a prototype of Cabo

Hong Zhang


Support for virtualization in commercial routers can help enable many of Cabo’s functions

  • ISPs could begin to offer some of the services that Cabo enables

Hong Zhang


Food for thought

    • Perhaps the right future network architecture is not an end state comprised of a collection of addressing, routing, and forwarding paradigms, but rather a platform that allows these functions to evolve as demands on communication networks change.
  • IP is general, network architecture itself should also be sufficiently general.

Hong Zhang

About ISPs and end users

Locater, identifier and IP address

Gains form reading this paper

Hong Zhang


Business and connection between ISPs

  • Internet is full duplex
  • How do users change ISP in Cabo?
    • Registering mechanism and some identifiers
    • Change address

Hong Zhang


Common Problem in Cabo, NIRA, UOA, Shim6, Wireless Network:

    • Changing IP address while others layers may require it!
  • Decoupling locater and identifier from IP
  • Independence is very important!
    • Physical Layer, IP Layer, Transport Layer, Application Layer

Hong Zhang



  • Diagram
  • Related work!!!

Hong Zhang