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Landscape of Caste . ‘ Transmission of craft-knowledge created occupational castes’ (64). Shift from hierarchy of peasants and herdsmen through trade and power . Mines (miners) . Hunters. Tools: stones for tools, construction, weapons (first efficient tool – miner’s hammer ‘ein Faustel.’ .

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Landscape of caste l.jpg
Landscape of Caste

‘Transmission of craft-knowledge created occupational castes’ (64)

Shift from hierarchy of peasants and herdsmen through trade and power

Mines (miners)

Hunters

Tools: stones for tools, construction, weapons (first efficient tool – miner’s hammer ‘ein Faustel.’

Woodsmen

Herdsmen

Peasants

Fishermen


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Important contributions to energy

  • Fishermen—boats (manpower to horsepower)

  • Farmers/peasants—hoe, scythe, irrigation ditches, cellars

  • Woodsmen—wood for fuel, lathe, ax,

  • Hunters—hammerhead, knife—pre-war,

  • Miners—metals, organic energy (coal), luxury items (gold, minerals) ‘assault on physical environment’ (isn’t this what many forms of energy do?)


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Mining: A Barbaric History

‘Mine: blast: dump: crush: extract: exhaust—there was indeed something devilish and sinister about the whole business. Life flourishes finally only in an environment of the living.’

  • Prisoners, Criminals, Slaves

  • Late Middle Ages—free labor enters mines

  • Danger, difficulty, mortality, darkness, struggles, perpetual winter, isolation, lifeless, irregular, uncertain

  • Materials produced from mine used for warfare, use brute force. Melting, breaking

  • Mines are for men, practices of mine affect the miner (psyche)



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Miner’s Life

  • Processed underground present above

  • Devastation of mining on landscape

  • Psychological affect on miners

  • Drinking/gambling, Animal-like state


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Affiliations of mining

  • Molders/Smiths

  • Jewelry making

  • Separated from mines in urban areas

  • Delicacy

  • Pleasant life


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And, Energy……?

Mines as devastating to environment as energy produced from them. Was it necessary/profitable?


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Mining Bound to Modern Capitalism

  • Rapid advancement when mined by free men

  • More $ going into mine = safer mine

  • Peasants’ War of 1525

  • Slavery Wage Slavery


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Increased Demand for Mine Materials

  • Warfare increased consumption of iron

  • Relationship between value and scarcity

  • Real value = power to sustain/enrich life

  • Curse of Midas



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Wood in all its Glory

  • Had place of stone up until 19th century

  • Exceptional Qualities for Transport

  • Combustible

    “Take away wood, and one takes away literally the props of modern technics”


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Woodman as Engineer

  • Developed the Wheel

  • Lathe

  • Building Dams

  • Locks

  • Mills

    The list is endless


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Big Problem

  • DEFORESTATION

  • Soil Erosion



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Soldier Major Influence on the Machine

  • Hunter Soldier

  • Soldier Conquer

  • Clock = will-to-order

    Cannon = will-to-power

  • Soldierly habits of thought aid spread of machine


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“With a mere pull of the trigger, he [the Soldier] could annihilate an enemy: that was a triumph of natural magic.”


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Warfare and Invention annihilate an enemy: that was a triumph of natural magic.”


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No Limits annihilate an enemy: that was a triumph of natural magic.”

  • Inventions are infinite

  • Ideals of humanity don’t exist

  • "...now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds..."

    -Physicist Robert OppenheimerSupervising Scientist Manhattan Project

  • Military Development borrowed from other trades


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Effects of Firearms annihilate an enemy: that was a triumph of natural magic.”

  • Demand for Iron

  • Platform for other machines, i.e. combustion engine

  • Military engineer


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Military Mass Production annihilate an enemy: that was a triumph of natural magic.”

  • Arms factories

  • 1785, France – Interchangeable parts

  • Concept of Uniformity

  • Warriors to soldiers


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Effects of National Armies annihilate an enemy: that was a triumph of natural magic.”

  • Inefficiency of the paid soldier

  • Armies – negative producers

  • Importance of military uniforms

    - Louis XIV  First large scale demand

    of standardized goods


War is not only the health of the state it is the health of the machine too lewis mumford l.jpg
“ War is not only the health of the State: it is the health of the machine, too.” -Lewis Mumford


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Drill and Deterioration health of the machine, too.”

  • Soldiers are victims of simplification

  • Machine like approach = lack of intelligence and adaptation

  • “To soldier” = withhold efficiency in work


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Post War Love and Wastefulness health of the machine, too.”

  • Need for luxuries

  • Women give up their bodies in response to their loved one returning

  • Men in return, must glorify the women with luxuries (need for cheap, mass produced inferior materials)


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Mars and Venus health of the machine, too.”


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Fantasies into Machines health of the machine, too.”

  • Steam Engine used to operate the organ

  • Children’s toys = future inventions

    • Airplanes, telephone, cars

  • “The spirit of play enfranchised the mechanical imagination.”– Lewis Mumford


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Productive Drive health of the machine, too.”

  • Acquiring money = moving out of one’s class

  • The Palace was Heaven—sacredness

  • Theory of the New Age


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What does this have to do with health of the machine, too.” energy ?

  • Soldiers = machines

  • Growing need to supply power to “toys”

  • **Wartime = Lack of man power in factories** = need for machines


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