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Landscape of Caste . ‘ Transmission of craft-knowledge created occupational castes’ (64). Shift from hierarchy of peasants and herdsmen through trade and power . Mines (miners) . Hunters. Tools: stones for tools, construction, weapons (first efficient tool – miner’s hammer ‘ein Faustel.’ .

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landscape of caste
Landscape of Caste

‘Transmission of craft-knowledge created occupational castes’ (64)

Shift from hierarchy of peasants and herdsmen through trade and power

Mines (miners)


Tools: stones for tools, construction, weapons (first efficient tool – miner’s hammer ‘ein Faustel.’





important contributions to energy
Important contributions to energy
  • Fishermen—boats (manpower to horsepower)
  • Farmers/peasants—hoe, scythe, irrigation ditches, cellars
  • Woodsmen—wood for fuel, lathe, ax,
  • Hunters—hammerhead, knife—pre-war,
  • Miners—metals, organic energy (coal), luxury items (gold, minerals) ‘assault on physical environment’ (isn’t this what many forms of energy do?)
mining a barbaric history
Mining: A Barbaric History

‘Mine: blast: dump: crush: extract: exhaust—there was indeed something devilish and sinister about the whole business. Life flourishes finally only in an environment of the living.’

  • Prisoners, Criminals, Slaves
  • Late Middle Ages—free labor enters mines
  • Danger, difficulty, mortality, darkness, struggles, perpetual winter, isolation, lifeless, irregular, uncertain
  • Materials produced from mine used for warfare, use brute force. Melting, breaking
  • Mines are for men, practices of mine affect the miner (psyche)
miner s life
Miner’s Life
  • Processed underground present above
  • Devastation of mining on landscape
  • Psychological affect on miners
  • Drinking/gambling, Animal-like state
affiliations of mining
Affiliations of mining
  • Molders/Smiths
  • Jewelry making
  • Separated from mines in urban areas
  • Delicacy
  • Pleasant life
and energy
And, Energy……?

Mines as devastating to environment as energy produced from them. Was it necessary/profitable?

mining bound to modern capitalism
Mining Bound to Modern Capitalism
  • Rapid advancement when mined by free men
  • More $ going into mine = safer mine
  • Peasants’ War of 1525
  • Slavery Wage Slavery
increased demand for mine materials
Increased Demand for Mine Materials
  • Warfare increased consumption of iron
  • Relationship between value and scarcity
  • Real value = power to sustain/enrich life
  • Curse of Midas
wood in all its glory
Wood in all its Glory
  • Had place of stone up until 19th century
  • Exceptional Qualities for Transport
  • Combustible

“Take away wood, and one takes away literally the props of modern technics”

woodman as engineer
Woodman as Engineer
  • Developed the Wheel
  • Lathe
  • Building Dams
  • Locks
  • Mills

The list is endless

big problem
Big Problem
  • Soil Erosion
soldier major influence on the machine
Soldier Major Influence on the Machine
  • Hunter Soldier
  • Soldier Conquer
  • Clock = will-to-order

Cannon = will-to-power

  • Soldierly habits of thought aid spread of machine
“With a mere pull of the trigger, he [the Soldier] could annihilate an enemy: that was a triumph of natural magic.”
no limits
No Limits
  • Inventions are infinite
  • Ideals of humanity don’t exist
  • " I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds..."

-Physicist Robert OppenheimerSupervising Scientist Manhattan Project

  • Military Development borrowed from other trades
effects of firearms
Effects of Firearms
  • Demand for Iron
  • Platform for other machines, i.e. combustion engine
  • Military engineer
military mass production
Military Mass Production
  • Arms factories
  • 1785, France – Interchangeable parts
  • Concept of Uniformity
  • Warriors to soldiers
effects of national armies
Effects of National Armies
  • Inefficiency of the paid soldier
  • Armies – negative producers
  • Importance of military uniforms

- Louis XIV  First large scale demand

of standardized goods

war is not only the health of the state it is the health of the machine too lewis mumford
“ War is not only the health of the State: it is the health of the machine, too.” -Lewis Mumford
drill and deterioration
Drill and Deterioration
  • Soldiers are victims of simplification
  • Machine like approach = lack of intelligence and adaptation
  • “To soldier” = withhold efficiency in work
post war love and wastefulness
Post War Love and Wastefulness
  • Need for luxuries
  • Women give up their bodies in response to their loved one returning
  • Men in return, must glorify the women with luxuries (need for cheap, mass produced inferior materials)
fantasies into machines
Fantasies into Machines
  • Steam Engine used to operate the organ
  • Children’s toys = future inventions
    • Airplanes, telephone, cars
  • “The spirit of play enfranchised the mechanical imagination.”– Lewis Mumford
productive drive
Productive Drive
  • Acquiring money = moving out of one’s class
  • The Palace was Heaven—sacredness
  • Theory of the New Age
what does this have to do with energy
What does this have to do with energy ?
  • Soldiers = machines
  • Growing need to supply power to “toys”
  • **Wartime = Lack of man power in factories** = need for machines