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Chapter 11: Intro to Genetics. Work of Gregor Mendel. Who is Gregor Mendel. Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) Austrian Augustinian Monk (Catholic) “Father of Modern Genetics” Worked with pea plants (Why?) Considered true breeding plants Could control their pollination

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chapter 11 intro to genetics

Chapter 11: Intro to Genetics

Work of Gregor Mendel

who is gregor mendel
Who is Gregor Mendel
  • Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
    • Austrian
    • Augustinian Monk (Catholic)
    • “Father of Modern Genetics”
    • Worked with pea plants (Why?)
      • Considered true breeding plants
      • Could control their pollination
      • Design of flower made it safer
    • Ideas did not catch on right away
what is genetics
What is Genetics?
  • The study of biological inheritance
  • What are true breeding plants?
    • Plants that are self-pollinating
    • Create specific traits in the plant
    • Offspring will be identical
  • What is cross breeding?
    • Producing plants from different parents
    • Ex: Crossing a yellow plant and green plant
genes and alleles
Genes and Alleles

What are genes?

Factors that are passed from one parent to offspring

Each gene controls a specific trait

What are alleles?

Variations on a gene

Each parents has 2 alleles

what is the principle of dominance
What is the Principle of Dominance?
  • Principle of Dominance
    • Some alleles are dominant
    • Some alleles are recessive
    • When both are present, the dominant allele will always show over the recessive allele
    • The only time the recessive shows is when no dominant allele is there
what is segregation
What is Segregation?
  • Segregation
    • Separating alleles
    • 25% of all plants showed recessive traits
    • Recessive traits appear in 2nd generation
    • Separation of alleles occurred during gamete formation
    • Gametes: the sperm and egg cells (sex cells)
chapter 11 intro to genetics1

Chapter 11: Intro to Genetics

Applying Mendel’s Principles

  • What is Probability?
    • Likelihood a particular event will happen
    • All genetics can be determined based off of probability
  • How does segregation tie into probability?
    • Each gene has 2 alleles
    • Homozygous: Both alleles for a gene are the same (TT)
    • Heterozygous: The alleles for a gene are different (Tt)
    • This can lead to the difference between genotype and phenotype
what is the difference between genotype and phenotype
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
  • What is phenotype?
    • The physical traits/characteristics of an organism
    • This can show if a plant is tall or short (Ex.)
  • What is genotype?
    • The genetic makeup of an organism
    • This shows up as TT or Tt or tt (Letters not traits)
  • What is the connection between them?
    • Organisms can have different genotypes but still have the same phenotype
    • TT and Tt will still produce the same physical trait
what is independent assortment
What is Independent Assortment?
  • This is all based off of the idea that one trait can be affected by the alleles for another trait
  • What he found:
    • Genes for different traits can segregate independently
    • These traits have no effect on other traits
summary of m endel s work
Summary of Mendel’s Work
  • What he learned:
    • 1. Biological characteristics are inherited through genes which are passed from parent to offspring
    • 2. A dominant and recessive gene occur when two or more alleles are present
    • 3. Each adult has two copies of a gene
    • 4. Alleles for different genes segregate independently
chapter 11 intro to genetics2

Chapter 11: Intro to Genetics

Other Patterns of Inheritance

co dominance
  • The idea that one allele is equal to another
  • Neither has dominance over the other
  • Both characteristics will show up in the trait
  • Cow has both

brown and

white visible

incomplete dominance
Incomplete Dominance
  • Similar to co-dominance
  • One allele is stronger than the other
  • However both alleles will show up in the trait
  • Can be mixed together
  • White and red colors mix

to make pink appear

multiple alleles
Multiple Alleles
  • Appears within a population and not just an individual
  • Having more than 2 possible alleles for a gene
  • Allows for multiple dominance
  • Many different eye

colors within a


polygenic traits
Polygenic Traits
  • Trait controlled by 2 or more genes
  • Example: Skin color
chromosome numbers
Chromosome Numbers
  • Diploid Cells
    • Human Cells
    • 2 sets of chromosomes
    • Designated as “2N”
  • Haploid Cells
    • Gametes (Sex Cells)
    • Sperm and Egg Cells
    • Designated as “N”
what is meiosis
What is Meiosis?
  • What is meiosis?
    • Cell division for sex cells
    • Half the number of chromosome
      • Allows for fusion during fertilization
    • Diploid cells are separated which creates the haploid cells
    • Meiosis can be divided into 2 different stages
stages of meiosis i
Stages of Meiosis I
  • Prophase I
    • Copied chromosome matches up with its homologous (identical) chromosome
    • Tetrads cross over creating new combos
stages of meiosis i1
Stages of Meiosis I
  • Metaphase I
    • Spindle fibers attach to chromosomes
stages of meiosis i2
Stages of Meiosis I
  • Anaphase I
    • Chromosomes pull apart to opposite ends
stages of meiosis i3
Stages of Meiosis I
  • Telophase I and Cytokinesis
    • Nuclear membrane forms
    • Cell separates into haploid cells
stages of meiosis ii
Stages of Meiosis II
  • Prophase II
    • 2 Connected daughter cells are created
stages of meiosis ii1
Stages of Meiosis II
  • Metaphase II
    • Chromosomes line up
stages of meiosis ii2
Stages of Meiosis II
  • Anaphase II
    • Separate and move to end of the cell
stages of meiosis ii3
Stages of Meiosis II
  • Telophase II and Cytokinesis
    • Nuclear membrane forms
    • 4 haploid cells created