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The Civil War: 1861 - 1865. Unit 7: The American Civil War and Reconstruction APUSH Mrs. Baker. Comparing the Two Sides. Identify the advantages and disadvantages of the North and the South. Population: 1861. Overall Population: North = 20, 700, 000 South = 9,105,000 Blacks = 3,600,000

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the civil war 1861 1865

The Civil War:1861 - 1865

Unit 7: The American Civil War and Reconstruction

APUSH

Mrs. Baker

comparing the two sides
Comparing the Two Sides

Identify the advantages and disadvantages of the North and the South.

population 1861
Population: 1861
  • Overall Population:
  • North = 20, 700, 000
  • South = 9,105,000
    • Blacks = 3,600,000
      • Not eligible to fight in the South
economy
Economy
  • North had huge advantage in industrial production
    • North -- 110,000 manufacturing establishments with 1,300,000 workers
    • South -- 18,000 establishments with 110,000 workers
      • North had big advantage in textile, coal, and iron production
  • North equaled or bettered the South in all areas of agricultural production except cotton
    • Including draft animals, livestock (pigs, cows, and poultry), wheat, and corn
  • North could produce 32 times the number of firearms as the South
  • South had only one factory capable of producing heavy artillery
government the confederacy
Government:The Confederacy
  • Favored States’ rights over a centralized government.
  • Modeled after U.S. Constitution but…
    • Non-successive 6 yr. term
    • Congress could not levy protective tariff and appropriate funds for internal improvements.

President

Jefferson Davis

Vice President

Alexander H. Stephens

government the union
Government: The Union
  • Well-established central government.
  • Strong political leadership
    • Abraham Lincoln - President
military
Military
  • North - Union
    • Regular Army already established
      • Many will leave to join South
    • U.S. Navy
  • South - Confederates
    • Strong military tradition
    • A number of small military institutes
    • Fighting a defensive war
military leadership
Military Leadership
  • West Point connection
    • Most high ranking officers in both armies were trained at West Point
    • Most men trained using a translation of Napoleonic strategy and tactics
  • Mexican War as training ground
    • Many of the young officers gained practical training during the Mexican war, serving under General Winfield Scott
    • Lee, McClellan, Jackson, and Grant all served
    • Developed a sense that bold frontal assaults could succeed if used against an enemy whose morale was weakened
how long will the war last
How Long Will the War Last?
  • Neither side thought war would last long
    • A Confederate congressman claimed he would drink the blood of all who fell in combat
    • Northern newspaper editor claimed the amount of blood shed could be held in a cup
    • Most states, when mustering troops, called for volunteers for 90 days, 6 months, or a year
  • Only a few states took precautions to call up volunteers for 3 years or the end of the war (whichever came first)
  • A few leaders argued the war would be long and hard
abraham lincoln s goal
Abraham Lincoln’s Goal

Preserve the Union

union strategy the anaconda plan
Union Strategy: The “Anaconda” Plan

General-in-Chief: Winfield Scott

Three part strategy:

U.S. navy to blockade southern ports

Divide the Confederacy in two by taking control of the Mississippi River

Raise and train an army 500,000 strong to take Richmond

slide21

1861

1862

1863

1864

1865

reaction to 1 st bull run
Beliefs

Military Changes

  • North
    •  Panic in the capital
    • Hardening of will to fight
    • Recruiting of three year volunteers swells
  • South
    • Reactions in Richmond seem like war is over
    • People see victory as God's will--sermon on parting of Red Sea by Presbyterian ministers across the South on July 21
  • McClellan takes command and creates the Army of the Potomac
    • McClellan
      • Served with distinction in Mexico, studied military methods in Europe, railroad experience
      • Hero of the West Virginia campaigns
    • Army dispirited
    • McClellan begins to whip force of 120,000 men into shape and calls his army the Army of the Potomac (naming of the armies)
    • McClellan agrees with press reports that he is man to save the country
  • Confederates fortify position at Centreville
Reaction to 1st Bull Run
battle of antietam september 17 1862
Battle of Antietam:(September 17, 1862)

Bloodiest Day of the War

23,000 causalities

slide28

Identify the significance of the Battle of Antietam.

How does it challenge the purpose of the war?

the end of slavery
The End of Slavery
  • Lincoln’s concerns:
    • Keeping the support of the border states
    • Constitutional protection of slavery
    • Prejudices of many northerners
    • Fear that premature action could be overturned in the next election.
  • 1st Step = Confiscation Acts
    • August 1861 – Power to seize enemy property used to wage war against the U.S.
    • July 1862 – Freed the slaves of persons engaged in rebellion against the U.S.
      • Empowered the president to use freed slaves in the Union army in any capacity
the emancipation proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation

What is the purpose of the Proclamation?

slide37

TURNING POINTS

How did the victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg change the outcome of the Civil War?

grant in command
Grant in Command
  • Grant's attempt at a coordinated strategy
  • Grant sought to deliver an all out attack on the Confederacy
  • Attack on all fronts, to prevent one part of Confederacy from reinforcing another
  • Plans for attack
    • East
      • Army of the Potomac--follow Lee
      • Sigel--Move from WVA to Shenandoah Valley
      • Butler--Move from Fortress Monroe with 30,000 men to threaten Richmond from the south and cut the capital's supply lines
    • West
      • Sherman--Go after Joe Johnston Army of Tennessee
      • Banks--move east from New Orleans, take Mobile and then go through Alabama
impact of the war on civilian life
Impact of the War on Civilian Life

What are the overall economic, political and social impacts of the Civil War on the North and South?

social change
Women

Emancipation and Freedom

Social Change
political change
Civil Liberties

The Draft

  • Suspension of writ of habeas corpus in Maryland and other states with Confederate sentiment.
    • People could be arrested without being informed of the charges against them.

North Initiates the Draft, 1863

Political Change
diplomatic efforts
Diplomatic Efforts

Why did the South need foreign recognition?

How did they attempt to gain support?

Why did their attempts fail?

economic change financing the war
South

North

  • Confederate Congress
    • worried about raising taxes, modest income tax passed in Aug. 1861
    • bond issues (loans to government) originally eagerly accepted by South
    • Treasury notes--paper money to be redeemed in specie 2 years after the war
  • Paper money, printed both by Confederate government and the states, causes severe inflation
    • Prices up 700 percent by early 1863
    • By end of war, prices had risen over 90 times the pre-war levels
  • Tax efforts -- beginning in 1863 was too little, too late
      • Impact of inflation and taxes on civilians
        • wages could not keep up with inflation
        • people forced to leave cities
        • food riots
  • Poor finance hurt the Confederate war effort
  • North had a sounder economic base to begin war
  • Legal tender act
    • allowed government to print greenbacks
    • Were legal tender immediately
      • Could be used as cash
    • Did not cause runaway inflation
  • North was able to flourish and begin to fully industrialize and expand.
Economic Change:Financing the War
modernizing northern society
Modernizing Northern Society
  • Republican economic program:
    • Morrill Tariff Act (1861)
    • The Homestead Act (1862)
    • The Morrill Land Grant Act (1862)
    • The Pacific Railway Act (1862)
    • National Bank Act (1863)