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Unit 5 Cruelty. Pre-reading Task (P.331 for script). Why do some people tend to be heartless and cruel? Were they born that way or did circumstances harden them? Do some people care too much for people in general and forget the needs of their closest friends? Ranking activity (see next page).

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pre reading task p 331 for script
Pre-reading Task (P.331 for script)
  • Why do some people tend to be heartless and cruel? Were they born that way or did circumstances harden them?
  • Do some people care too much for people in general and forget the needs of their closest friends?
  • Ranking activity (see next page)
easy to be hard by three dog night
Easy to Be Hard by Three Dog Night

The name came from an Australian expression referring to it being so cold that one would need three dogs for warmth.

In the years 1969 through 1974, no other group had more top 10 hits, moved more records or sold more concert tickets

- www.threedognight.com.

text a a friend in deed
Text A A Friend in Deed
  • Ranking activity -- the determining forces in shaping human nature:
    • Genes;
    • Family;
    • Parenting;
    • Schooling;
    • Peers;
    • Socioeconomic factors;





maugham w somerset 1874 1965
Maugham, W. Somerset (1874-1965)
  • British novelist, playwright, short-story writer, highest paid author in the world in the 1930s.
  • Despite his popularity, Maugham did not gain serious recognition – he stood “in the very first row of the second-raters”.
  • Maugham's skill in handling plot has been compared by critics in the manner of Guy de Maupassant.
Maugham, W. Somerset (1874-1965)
  • "I have never pretended to be anything but a story teller. It has amused me to tell stories and I have told a great many. It is a misfortune for me that the telling of a story just for the sake of the story is not an activity that is in favor with the intelligentsia."

(Creatures of Circumstance, 1947)

maugham w somerset 1874 19651
Maugham, W. Somerset (1874-1965)
  • He was born in Paris as the youngest son of the solicitor to the British embassy. He learned French as his native tongue. At the age of 10 Maugham was orphaned.
  • Maugham studied medicine at Heidelberg University and in London. He qualified in 1897 as doctor from St. Thomas' medical school but abandoned medicine after the success of his first novels and plays.
威廉· 萨默塞特· 毛姆













text a a friend in deed1
Text A A Friend in Deed

The author shows us how powerful contrast is in delineating a person’ character.

What are your first impressions of

  • the title?
  • Edward Burton?

How are they changed while you are reading on?

text a a friend in deed2
Text A A Friend in Deed

Text Organization (P.169)

Text analysis and language study


text analysis and language study i
Text analysis and language study I

Part I (Para. 1)

It is no easy job to judge people, for they aren’t always what they appear to be.

1. deceptive (p.160)

2. to shrug (one’s) shoulders (L.2)

text analysis and language study ii
Text analysis and language study II

Part II (Paras. 2-3)

Kind and gentle, Edward Burton, a wealthy merchant, appeared as if he could not bear to hurt a fly.

3. merchant (L. 7) 4. in business (L. 8 )

5. definite (L.12) 6. station (L. 16 )

7. dry (L. 22) 8.affectionate (L. 26)

9. benign ( L. 29)

text analysis and language study iii
Text analysis and language study III

Part III (Para3. 4-51)

As it turned out, Burton was cold-blooded enough to send a friend to certain death.

  • the story can be subdivided into 3 sections:

Section 1: Para3. 4-16

Section 2: Para3. 17-31

Section 3: Para3. 32-51

text analysis and language study iv
Text analysis and language study IV

Section 1 (Para3. 4-16)

What Edward knew about Lenny

10 . frail ( L. 35)

11. lounge (L. 37)

text analysis and language study v
Text analysis and language study V

Section 2 (Para3. 17-31)

How Edward respond to Lenny’s request

12. …he was all to pieces ( L. 85)

text analysis and language study vi
Text analysis and language study VI

Section 3 (Para3. 32-51)

How Edward, a “kind” gentleman, handled a friend in desperate need of help

13. on account of (L. 105)

14. creek (L116)

15. “ Done!” ( L.118)

16. dissipation (L.124)

1 deceptive p 160
1. deceptive (p.160)’

adj. deceiving or intend to deceive

n. deception

v. deceive

1 deceptive p 1601
1. deceptive (p.160)’’

Deceive implies imposing a false idea or belief that causes confusion, bewilderment, or helplessness

< The salesman tried to deceive me about the car.> ant. Undeceive, enlighten

Mislead implies a leading astray from the truth that may or may not be intentional

< I was misled by the confusing sign >

Delude implies deceiving so thoroughly as to make one a fool or to make one unable to distinguish the false from the truth

< We were deluded into thinking we were safe> ant enlighten

Beguile stress the use of charm and persuasion to deceive

< His ingratiating ways beguiled us all >

2 to shrug one s shoulders l 2
2. to shrug (one’s) shoulders (L.2)

to raise (one’s shoulder) esp. as an expression of doubt or lack of interest

He shrugged ( his shoulder) saying he didn’t know and didn’t care.

3 merchant l 7
3. merchant (L. 7)

merchant n. a person who buys and sells goods, esp. in large amounts in foreign countries

businessman n. a man in business, esp. as an owner or executive

merchantman n. also merchant ship 1) a ship carrying goods for trade 2) {Archaic} a merchant

merchantadj. of or used in trade; commercial

merchant fleet

merchant town

4 in business l 8
4. in business (L. 8 )

1) 经商,经营

He is in business himself.

2) 开始工作

The 15-member committee is expected to be in business by early June.

on business

visit Africa on official business

No admittance except on business

5 definite l 12
5. definite (L.12)

Definite stresses precise, clear statement or arrangement that leaves no uncertainty or indecision < The law is definite regarding such cases> ant indefinite, equivocal

Explicit implies such verbal plainness and distinctness that there is no need for inference and no reason for ambiguity or difficulty in understanding < The dress code is explicit> ant. Ambiguous

Express implies both explicitness and direct and forceful utterance < Her express wish was to be cremated>

Specific applies to what is precisely and fully referred to or treated in detail or particular < Two specific criticisms of the proposal > ant vague

6 station l 16
6. station (L. 16 )

n. [of + U] (lit.) one’s position in life; social rank:

She married beneath her station

(= someone of lower rank)

people in humble stations


all stations of life社会各阶层

7 dry l 22
7. dry (L. 22)

amusing without appearing to be so; quietly ironic

I like his dry humor.

dry wit

8 affectionate l 26
8.affectionate (L. 26)’

full of affection, tender and loving

She was very affectionate to / with him

affectation n.

1) behavior which is not one’s natural manner:

She is sincere and quite without affectation.

2) a feeling or manner that is pretended

8 affectionate l 261
8.affectionate (L. 26)’’

affection suggests warm, tender feelings, usually not as powerful or deep as those implied by love

< He has no affection for children>

love implies intense fondness or deep devotion and may apply to various relationships or objects

< sexual love, brotherly love,

love of one’s work, etc.>

9 benign l 29
9. benign ( L. 29)’


1) having or showing a kind or gentle nature:

a benign teacher/ expression

2) med. (of disease) not dangerous to life, not malignant:

A benign tumor can usually be cured.

3) favorable, beneficial:

a benign effect a benign influence

9 benign l 291
9. benign ( L. 29)’’

benign suggests a mild or kindly nature and is applied especially to a gracious superior rather than an equal

< a benign employer> ant: malign

kind implies the possession of sympathetic or generous qualities, either habitually or specifically, or is applied to actions manifesting these

< he is kind only to his mother, your kind remarks > ant: unkind

kindly stresses more the expression of sympathetic nature, mood, or impulse

< take a kindly interest in the poor of the community> ant: unkindly

10 frail l 35
10 . frail ( L. 35)

adj. Slenderer and delicate; not robust;

frailsuggests an inherent or constitutional delicacy or weakness, so as to be easily broken or shattered < a ~ body, conscience, etc >

weakthe broadest in application of these words, basically implied a lack of inferiority of physical, mental or moral strength

feeblesuggests a pitiable weakness or ineffectiveness

< a ~ old man, a feeble joke>

infirmsuggests a loss of strength or soundness, as through illness or age

< his infirm old grandfather>

11 lounge l 37
11. lounge (L. 37)
  • a comfortable room for sitting in, as in a house, hotel, or inn:

arrivals lounges in principal airports

v. 1) to stand or sit in a leaning lazy manner :

lounge against the wall;

lounge on a sofa

2) to pass (time) in a lazy manner, doing nothing:

She lounged the afternoon away at the beach.

He lounged away the day reading

12 he was all to pieces l 85
12. …he was all to pieces ( L. 85)

1) to break into pieces; fall apart

The ship went to pieces on the rock.

The economy of that country went to pieces.

2) to lose all-self-control, morally or emotionally

She went to pieces when her husband died.

of a (one) piece (with)

pick up the pieces

pick ( pull) to pieces

13 on account of l 105
13. on account of (L. 105)

- because of

resign on account of age

on account - on a charge account:

He owed $50 and sent me $10 on account.

on no account - also not on any accountnot under any circumstances:

On no account should you go.

on/for someone’s account - for someone’s sake

I hope you didn’t bring beer to the picnic just on my account.

14 creek l116
14. creek (L116)

n. a small stream , somewhat larger than a brook

brook,< creek,< stream.

15 done l 118
15. “ Done!” ( L.118)

=“Agreed!”; “I accept”!

- “I ‘ll give you $5 for it”


16 dissipation l 124
16. dissipation (L.124)

        n. the continual search for foolish or dangerous pleasure

a life of dissipation


dissipations of life


exercises for unit 5
Exercises for Unit 5


  • To be _____, I don’t think you have the talent to be a great violinist.

A. open B. plain C. general D. candid

2. They have _____ many horrible crimes against the Chinese people.

A. done B. made C. took D. committed

3. The_____ of thought in the country has turned against war.

A. tide B. flood C. current D. currency



exercises for unit 51
Exercises for Unit 5


4. An _____woman came to consult him about her throat.

A. older B. elder C. elderly D. eldest

5. Seeing a plain roared towards him, Tom was in a blue _____.

A. frank B. funk C. funeral D. furnace

6. It’s _____ to fly in this weather.

A. mad B. crazy C. crazed D. insane



exercises for unit 52
Exercises for Unit 5


7. She has too _____a nature to get angry, even if he has good cause.

A. bland B. mild C. militant D. middling

8. Take a _____ of my drink and see if you like it or not.

A. suck B. sip C. lick D. lap

9. Don’t bother to look for my umbrella, it will _____ some day.

A. turn over B. turn up C. turn out D. turn on



exercises for unit 53
Exercises for Unit 5


10. _____, we were just talking about the same thing.

A. Too oddly B. Too strange

C. Oddly enough D. Strength enough

11. If trade’s no better next month, we shall go _____ and then what will you do for jobs?.

A. stuck B. blocked C. broke D. blank

12. His actions and principles are all _____ a piece.

A. to B. in C. by D. of



exercises for unit 54
Exercises for unit 5


13. I don’t think the answer lies simply in their physical _____ or in something unique about the climate in which they live. It is concerned with their attitude toward life.

A. physician B. constitute

C. constitution D. institute

14. In many large cities of the UK, there are many people who are _____. They have no money, no friends and no time.

A. down-to-earth B. down and out

C. up and down D. odds and ends


exercises for unit 55
Exercises for Unit 5


15. He always _____ his beard with a pair of scissors instead of a razor.

A. cuts B. trims C. plucks D. trains

16. He was _____ when he heard he was promoted. He had suffered too many years from his wife’s endless complaints.

A. taken aback B. taken ahead

C. taken away D. taken after

17. Many people are of the opinion that advertisements are _____.

A. receptive B. conceptive

C. deceptive D. deception



exercises for unit 56
Exercises for Unit 5


18. He never cares about such _____ as he is a broad-minded man.

A. stifles B. strife C. trifles D. strives

19. His behavior has _____ shown that he is trustworthy person.

A. imaginatively B. intuitively

C. evidently D. instinctively

20. He accepted our invitation to hold this party _____.

A. in good grace B. out of a good grace

C. with a good grace D. with better grace



exercises for unit 57
Exercises for Unit 5


21. Seeing the cute baby, I couldn’t help _____ his cheek tenderly.

A. teasing B. stroking C. contacting D.rubbing

22. Students will be punished if their behavior is not _____ school rules and regulations.

A. in accordance to B. in accordance with

C. in according to D. with accord to

23. Trust your _____ and do what you think is right.

A. self B. confidence

C. instincts D. nature



exercises for unit 58
Exercises for Unit 5


24. You’ll soon go all to _____ if you keep on working like that.

A. bits B. pieces C. segments D. parts

25. Can’t you see all what he told us are _____ lies?

A. opaque B. transparent

C. thorough D. entire

26. I peg your pardon? I don’t know what you are _____.

A. driving by B. driving on

C. driving at D. driving off



exercises for unit 59
Exercises for unit 5


27. She has been in bad _____ these days so she asked for a sick leave from the office.

A. time B. condition

C. way D. mood

28. He is making some progress in his work since his last project was well done _____.

A. in a way B. in a day

C. in a lay D. in a ray

29. He doesn’t think he is suitable for this job for his own _____.

A. reason B. idea

C. division D. part



exercises for unit 510
Exercises for Unit 5


30. We have a _____ for a computer programmer..

A. vacant B. vacancy

C. emptiness D. gap

KEY to Exercises for Unit 5