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Do Now: Take a clicker and take a packet – read the first page and check off your risk factors!**Sunburn is ANYTIME your skin turns pinkish or reddish** **FRECKLES are the same thing as MOLES**HW :1. Finish POGIL if you didn’t during class…2. MEMESDUE NEXT CLASS! 3. Ch27 #24, 28, 34, 36 (p. 420) 5 points – 1 point each and 1 point correctness

skin types
Skin Types
  • You might fall in between 2 types – pick the 1 that best matches you
what are the different types of skin cancer
What are the different types of skin cancer?
  • Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma are the three types of skin cancers.  
  • Basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma are the most common types and less dangerous than melanoma. They usually occur on sun-exposed areas of the body such as the face, neck, ears, scalp, and hands.
  • Melanoma is the most serious because if it is not treated early, it is more likely to spread throughout the body. This is called “metastasizing.” Once this happens, it is very difficult / impossible to treat.
    • Melanoma kills 1 person every 50 minutes.
    • For people ages 15-29, melanoma is the 2nd most common cancer.
Who is at risk for developing melanoma?Please check any that apply to you…the more you check, the more “at risk” you are considered:
  • Fairest skin types – ‘Type I or Type II’
  • Redheads, Blondes or those with light brown hair
  • Those with light eyes: blue or green
  • Those with a family history of skin cancer
  • Those with a large number of moles
  • Those who visit a tanning salon regularly
  • Those who have had sunburns as a child/teen, ESPECIALLY burns resulting in blistering and peeling of the skin (aka sun poisoning)
how many risk factors did you check
How many risk factors did you check?
  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
  • 5
  • 6
  • 7
  • Zero risk factors!
what are the symptoms of melanoma
What are the symptoms of melanoma?
  • Symptoms of melanoma may vary, so it’s important to recognize changes in the skin that are unusual for you.  
  • Some symptoms to notice are moles that change in size, shape or color, new moles, moles that itch, bleed, or are tender, and sores that don’t heal.  
  • If you notice any of these signs, seek prompt consultation with a dermatologist. (see last page for more info)
how can i check for skin cancer and how often should i check
How can I check for skin cancer and how often should I check?
  • You should perform monthly skin self-exams.
  • This will help you be aware of your skin and keep track of any changes by using a skin map to chart your existing moles, birthmarks and other skin growths.
  • If you notice any changes, consult your dermatologist. (see last page for more info)
remember the abcde warning signs
Remember the ABCDE warning signs:

• Asymmetry of lesion• Border (uneven borders)• Color variation (many shades of color within a lesion)• Diameter greater than 6 millimeters (pencil eraser)• Evolving/Elevation (lesion is growing in height)

how can i reduce my risk of skin cancer
How can I reduce my risk of skin cancer?
  • You can reduce your risk of developing skin cancer by limiting your time in the sun during 10 a.m. and 4 p.m., when the sun’s rays are strongest.  
  • When you are in the sun, make sure you use a sunscreen with SPF of 15 or higher with protection against UV-A and UV-B rays.  
  • Apply the sunscreen 30 minutes before going in the sun and reapply throughout the day.  Remember to cover up and wear protective clothing, including a hat and sunglasses.
  • ***When getting nails done, put sunblock on your hands! Click here for more info on nail salons increasing UV exposure:
are tanning beds a safe alternative to being in the sun
Are tanning beds a safe alternative to being in the sun?
  • Tanning beds are not safe; you are exposed to ultraviolet radiation in a tanning bed…15x more than what you would get from the sun!
  • In fact, tanning just once a month before the age of 35 increases your melanoma risk by 75%.
are spray tans sunless tanning products a safe alternative to being in the sun
Are spray tans/ sunless tanning products a safe alternative to being in the sun?
  • ‘Spray tans’ or ‘sunless tans’ do not use UV radiation, and do not cause your skin to produce melanin.
  • “If you've ever seen a sliced apple turn from white to brown, you've seen how spray-tanning products work on your skin. Natural chemicals cause the inside of the apple to turn brown when it's exposed to air. The naturally occurring chemical dihydroxyacetone, commonly known as DHA, does the same thing to your skin. DHA is the main ingredient in sunless tanning sprays.
  • In fact, the Skin Cancer Foundation warns against using any sunless tanning product that does not list DHA as the active ingredient. DHA has an enzymatic reaction with the amino acids in the outer layer, or epidermis (stratum corneum), of the skin, causing the dead skin cells to turn temporarily dark.
are spray tans sunless tanning products a safe alternative to being in the sun1
Are spray tans/ sunless tanning products a safe alternative to being in the sun?
  • the sun's rays and the UV lights used in tanning beds penetrate into the deepest layers of skin. That's why they cause lasting damage.
  • The effects of the DHA are temporary. Every day, millions of dead skin cells are sloughed off or worn away from the surface of your skin. In fact, every 35 to 45 days, you have an entirely new epidermis. This is why tans from sunless- or self-tanning lotions will gradually fade -- as the dead cells are worn away, so is your tan. For this reason, most of these products suggest that you reapply the sunless- or self-tanner about every three days to maintain your "tan." ( )
how does sunscreen work
How does sunscreen work?
  • There are 2 types of sunscreens:
    • those with mineral based formulas that ‘sit’ on your skin’s surface and block UV, much like a wall blocks sunlight.
    • those with chemical based formulas that actually react with UV, using chemicals to absorb the radiation
  • Either way, they have the same usages when it comes to SPF (sun Protection Factor). Let’s say you typically burn/tan after 10 minutes. An SPF of 10 will keep you from burning/tanning 10 times longer – in other words, 10 x 10 = 100 minutes of protection. An SPF of 30 will protect you for 30x as long (30 x 10 = 300).
how does sunscreen work1
How does sunscreen work?
  • Some studies have suggested that anything over SPF 35 is unnecessary, since you need to reapply all sunblocks (regardless of SPF) every hour or so due to sweating, swimming, etc.
  • Studies show that sunscreen with SPF 15 can block about 93% of all incoming UVB rays. SPF 30 blocks 97%. SPF 50 blocks 98%.
  • As you can see, higher SPF’s really don’t perform much better….but they do cost more $$$
how does sunscreen work2
How does sunscreen work?
  • Some studies have also suggested that the chemical-based sun screens can actually cause skin cancer!
  • The Environmental Working Group and other toxicology experts believe that oxybenzone is linked to hormone disruption and potentially to cell damage that may lead to skin cancer; the American Academy of Dermatology disagrees and says that oxybenzone is safe.
  • However, if you would rather be ‘safe than sorry,’ then consider switching to mineral based sunblocks and avoiding chemically-based ones:
  • Minerals: zinc oxide or titanium dioxide
  • Chemicals: oxybenzone, retinylpalmitate, and pretty much anything with a difficult to pronounce name (esp. if it starts with ‘oxy’)
if i have skin cancer what are my treatment options
If I have skin cancer, what are my treatment options?
  • Most skin cancers are treatable if caught early. (melanoma, not so much)
  • Many cancerous skin lesions can be removed from the skin easily. They are sometimes removed completely at the time of the biopsy and no further treatment is necessary.
  • In some cases, doctors use radiation therapy, chemotherapy, a special chemotherapy cream that burns off skin cells, or a combination of methods to treat the disease. (melanoma is not as easy to cure)
is there a melanoma vaccine available
Is There A Melanoma Vaccine Available?
  • The melanoma vaccine is designed for patients with advanced stage melanoma, unlike typical vaccines given to prevent diseases.
  • Following surgery, patients are given the vaccine to boost their immune system’s defense against any residual cancer cells in the body.
  • The vaccines are still experimental and have not been approved by the FDA.  Clinical trials using vaccines and other forms of biologic therapy, including interferon, cytokines and monoclonal antibodies, are in process.
you have 10 minutes to
You have 10 minutes to…
  • Read through rest of packet (including diagrams on page 2 and skin cancer self-check tools on page 4)
  • Answer the questions on page 3
  • After 10 minutes, We are completing a GRADED clicker review of #1-8
1 is sunless tanning spray tan the same as regular tanning
#1. Is ‘sunless tanning’ (spray tan) the same as regular tanning?
  • Yes
  • No
  • Both A & B
  • Neither A nor B
Is ‘sunless tanning’ (spray tan) the same as regular tanning?
    • No
  • Tanning outside/ in a tanning bed exposes you to UV radiation which can change the DNA in your skin!
  • Sunless tanning deposits DHA on the top layer of your skin.
  • You should consider using sunblock no matter what, ESPECIALLY with a ‘sunless tan.’ Some studies suggest that you may be more at risk for UV exposure (sun burns, poisonings, etc) if you have DHA in your skin

#2. Sun poisoning is actually 1stor 2nd degree burning of your skin. What layer(s) of the skin is damaged when you get the blisters from sun poisoning?

  • Epidermis
  • Dermis
  • Subcutaneous tissue
  • Both A & B
  • Both B & C
  • All of the above

#4. Look back at your EM spectrum diagram. Based on what you know about frequencies and wavelengths, which UV radiation would have the largest FREQUENCY?

  • UVA
  • UVB
  • UVC
  • Both 1 & 2
  • Both 2 & 3
  • All of the above
#5. Based on what you know about EM radiation frequencies, which form of UV radiation would be the most DANGEROUS?
  • UVA
  • UVB
  • UVC
  • Both 1 & 2
  • Both 2 & 3
  • All of the above

#6a & b. Tanning beds use UVA and/or UVB rays. The more “expensive” beds use more of UVA and less of UVB. If you do tan, which rays have a higher frequency and are more likely to cause cancer?

  • UVA
  • UVB
  • Same
  • Not sure

#7a & b. Your skin produces collagen, which gives your skin smoothness and elasticity. As you age, collagen production decreases, leading to wrinkles, and that “leathery” look. Tanning can cause the collagen to break down even faster, causing more wrinkles at an earlier age. This occurs when the UV radiation penetrates deeper in your skin. Which penetrates more deeply into your skin & is therefore more likely to age you faster – UVA or UVB?

  • UVA
  • UVB
  • Same
  • Not sure

Look at this truck driver – the side of his face closer to the window has had A LOT of UVA exposure.

8 so either way are there cosmetic and or life threatening consequences with indoor tanning
#8. So, either way, are there cosmeticand/or life threatening consequences with indoor tanning?
  • Yes
  • No
  • Not sure
If you do choose to tan indoors, take these steps to reduce your risk:
  • Remember, all UV radiation is potentially hazardous
  • Start slowly. Always follow the manufacturer’s recommended exposure schedule. (If you look on the tanning bed itself, you will notice that it gives you a schedule that does not exceed 3-4x a week!)
  • Never tan everyday! (3x a week is all the FDA has approved!) Your skin needs time to recover from UV exposure.
  • Wear protective eyewear that meets FDA specifications.
  • After a tan is developed, tanning once every week, or even every two weeks, should be sufficient to maintain your tan.
If you do choose to tan indoors, take these steps to reduce your risk: (Continued)
  • If you are taking medications, ask your doctor or pharmacist if they are potentially photosensitizing. If so, do not tan!
  • Children and teens may have greater risk for skin cancer from UV exposure, so they should be especially careful to minimize UV exposure and burns.
  • Understand WHY you are at risk – some studies have shown that tanning can be addictive because it can trigger the same areas of your brain that are linked to drug and alcohol dependence. This explains why so many people are ‘tanorexic’ or ‘addicted to tanning.’
  • Stopping with 10 - 15 minutes before the end of class for a GRADEDclicker exit
  • Check in at stop signs!
  • Anything not finished becomes HW…. However, not completing during class means you will earn a lower grade during the clicker exit!
based on what you learned are you going to change your uv exposure habits
Based on what you learned…are you going to change your UV exposure habits?
  • Yes
  • No
  • Not sure – need to think about it some more and do my own research regarding tanning, sunblock (chemical vs mineral), etc.

HW :Finish POGIL if you didn’t during class…GRADED via clickers at START of next class MEMES DUE NEXT CLASS! Ch 27 #24, 28, 34, 36 (p. 420) 5 points – 1 point each and 1 point correctness