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Bacteria. Characteristics . Prokaryotic: no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles Cell contains “nucleoid” (DNA region), cytoplasm, a cell wall, and ribosomes Tiniest of living single cells. Four Groups: Eubacteria – “ true bacteria ” Cyanobacteria – blue-green bacteria

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characteristics
Characteristics
  • Prokaryotic: no nucleus or membrane-bound organelles
  • Cell contains “nucleoid” (DNA region), cytoplasm, a cell wall, and ribosomes
  • Tiniest of living single cells
slide3

Four Groups:

  • Eubacteria – “true bacteria”
  • Cyanobacteria – blue-green bacteria
  • Archaebacteria – recent findings
  • Prochlorobacteria – contain chlorophyll a & b (very similar to chloroplasts)
slide4
Now...
  • Categorized into two kingdoms:

I. Kingdom Archaebacteria

II. Kingdom Eubacteria

archaebacteria
Archaebacteria
  • Oldest of all organisms on earth
  • Hypothesized to be the ancestors to all of life’s kingdoms
  • Can inhabit Earth’s most inhospitable regions
  • Can thrive in very hot, very acidic and very salty conditions – conditions that scientists think that existed on Earth billions of years ago.
they get their own kingdom because
They get their own kingdom because...
  • The chemical properties of their cell wall and membrane are different from Eubacteria
  • Out of 1700 genes more than 50% are different than Eubacteria
3 main phyla of archaebacteria
3 main phyla of archaebacteria
  • Anaerobic methanogens – mainly live in the gut of animals, or at the bottom of marshes – how all of the methane gas is produced on earth.
3 main phyla of archaebacteria1
3 main phyla of archaebacteria

b) Halophiles– “salt-loving” bacteria living in extreme salty conditions, such as the Dead Sea

Salt crystals

3 main phyla of archaebacteria2
3 main phyla of archaebacteria

c) Thermophiles– bacteria that can tolerate very hot temperatures, and acidic conditions – these bacteria inhabit naturally forming hot springs

outer surface
Outer surface:
  • Cell wall - made up of complex carbohydrates, for protection
  • Cell membrane
  • Flagella - for transportation and locomotion
eubacteria colony shapes
Eubacteria Colony Shapes
  • Coccus: round
  • Bacillus: rod
  • Sprillum: spiral
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Binary Fission: eubacteria make a copy of their DNA, increase their cell size, and split to produce an identical copy
reproduction1
Reproduction
  • Conjugation: eubacteria can pair up with another cell and exchange DNA