defining abnormal behavior part iii january 22 2014 psyc 2340 abnormal psychology brett deacon ph d n.
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Defining Abnormal Behavior, Part III January 22, 2014 PSYC 2340: Abnormal Psychology Brett Deacon, Ph.D. From Last Class. Distinguishing normal from abnormal behavior Diagnosing mental disorders. Diagnosing Mental Disorders. Key aspects of DSM-IV definition:

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defining abnormal behavior part iii january 22 2014 psyc 2340 abnormal psychology brett deacon ph d
Defining Abnormal Behavior, Part IIIJanuary 22, 2014PSYC 2340: Abnormal PsychologyBrett Deacon, Ph.D.
from last class
From Last Class
  • Distinguishing normal from abnormal behavior
  • Diagnosing mental disorders
diagnosing mental disorders
Diagnosing Mental Disorders
  • Key aspects of DSM-IV definition:
  • Clinically significant (i.e., severe)
  • Associated with either distress, impairment, or interference with life
  • Not just a culturally accepted response
diagnosing mental disorders1
Diagnosing Mental Disorders
  • These key aspects should help us distinguish between serious and less severe problems
  • For example:
    • Social phobia vs. shyness
    • Major depression vs. transient sadness
    • Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder vs. energetic child with high need for stimulation
    • Caffeine dependence vs. drinking coffee every day without associated problems
diagnosing mental disorders2
Diagnosing Mental Disorders
  • Theoretically, a problem in ANY area of psychological functioning can be a mental disorder if it meets the definition of a mental disorder
  • Why not:
    • Anger Disorders?
    • Internet Addiction Disorder?
    • Temper Tantrum Disorder?
    • Procrastination Disorder?
diagnosing mental disorders3
Diagnosing Mental Disorders
  • Which of the following disorders are either in the (current) DSM-IV or were seriously considered for inclusion in the DSM-5 in May of 2013?
slide7
Chronic Anger Disorder
  • Intermittent Explosive Disorder
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
  • Brief, Recurrent Depressive Disorder
  • Minor Depressive Disorder
  • Extremely Minor Depressive Disorder
  • Pre-Menstrual Dysphoric Disorder
  • Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder
  • Mixed Insomnia-Irritability Disorder
  • Gambling Addiction Disorder
  • Sexual Addiction Disorder
  • Olfactory Reference Syndrome
  • Immature Personality Disorder
  • Dependent Personality Disorder
  • Chronic Normalcy Syndrome
  • Occasional Unhappiness Disorder

Hint:

7 are fake

slide8
*Chronic Anger Disorder
  • Intermittent Explosive Disorder
  • Major Depressive Disorder
  • Disruptive Mood Dysregulation Disorder
  • Brief, Recurrent Depressive Disorder
  • Minor Depressive Disorder
  • *Extremely Minor Depressive Disorder
  • Pre-Menstrual Dysphoric Disorder
  • Mixed Anxiety-Depressive Disorder
  • *Mixed Insomnia-Irritability Disorder
  • Gambling Addiction Disorder
  • *Sexual Addiction Disorder
  • Olfactory Reference Syndrome
  • *Immature Personality Disorder
  • Dependent Personality Disorder
  • *Chronic Normalcy Syndrome
  • *Occasional Unhappiness Disorder

*Not in DSM-IV or considered for DSM-5

diagnosing mental disorders4
Diagnosing Mental Disorders
  • Over the years, the DSM has created mental disorders describing problems experienced in nearly all domains of psychological functioning
  • Emotions (anxiety, depression), thought/reason, perceptual experiences, social functioning, relationships, perfectionism, substance use, eating, body image, sex, identity, physical complaints, pain, sleep, attention, activity level, memory, intelligence, conduct, etc.
diagnosing mental disorders5
Diagnosing Mental Disorders
  • In the absence of objective criteria for diagnosing mental disorders, the makers of the DSM are free to create diagnoses describing new kinds of psychological problems
  • Subject to cultural changes
  • Subject to personal biases of DSM members
  • Subject to third-party interests
    • Insurance companies
    • Pharmaceutical companies
diagnosing mental disorders6
Diagnosing Mental Disorders
  • Hypothetical effects of pharmaceutical company conflicts of interest on task force members:
  • Creation of new diagnoses
    • Bereavement = major depressive disorder
    • Disruptive mood dysregulation disorder
    • Somatic symptom disorder
  • Lowering threshold for diagnosing common mental disorders (adult ADHD)
  • How the DSM-5 handled this issue: disclosure only
diagnosing mental disorders7
Diagnosing Mental Disorders
  • Take home messages:
  • “Mental disorder” diagnoses should be given judiciously
  • Potential benefits: helping those in need
  • Possible problems: increased stigma (self and public), exposure to potentially harmful treatments, violation of civil rights, attention on the individual vs. external causes of problems
evolution of the dsm
Evolution of the DSM
  • History of the DSM
    • Psychiatry’s Freudian legacy
    • A field under attack
    • Rise of the pharmacologists
    • Function of the modern DSM
evolution of the dsm1
Evolution of the DSM
  • 5 editions, I in 1952 through 5 in 2013
  • Massive changes in length and content
mental disorders in the us
Mental Disorders in the US
  • About 25% of Americans currently have a DSM-IV defined mental disorder
  • Lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder is about 50%
  • Approximately half of those with a mental disorder have 2 or more
  • These percentages will almost certainly increase with the new DSM-5
mental health professions
Mental Health Professions
  • Psychiatry (MD)
  • Psychiatric nursing (masters-level)
  • Clinical psychology (doctoral-level)
  • Counseling psychology (doctoral-level)
  • School psychology (masters- or doctoral-level)
  • Counseling (masters-level)
  • Social work (masters-level)
  • Marriage and family therapy (masters-level)
mental health professions1
Mental Health Professions
  • Distinguishing between professions:
    • Amount of education and training
    • Emphasis on science vs. practice
    • Theoretical approach to mental disorders
    • Nature of clinical practice – prescribing, therapy, testing, etc.
    • Degree of autonomy
getting into graduate school in clinical psychology
Getting into Graduate School in Clinical Psychology
  • Undergraduate course work
  • GPA, overall, last 2 years, and in major
  • GRE, both general and psychology tests
  • Research/scholarly experience
  • Clinically-relevant experience
  • Strong letters of recommendation
  • Personal statement
  • For Ph.D. programs: Clearly articulated research interests that match well with a faculty member, combined with evidence of experience/expertise, or at least serious interest, in the faculty member’s area of research
useful resources about graduate school
Useful Resources about Graduate School
  • American Psychological Association (2005). Graduate study in psychology 2006. Washington, DC: Author.http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_540.asp- see also the library
  • Excellent links page about entire process: http://www.uni.edu/walsh/linda2.html
  • Difference between clinical & counseling psychology:http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_73.asp
  • Differences between Psy.D. and Ph.D.: http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_171.asp
  • Obtaining a good letter of recommendation: http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_75.asp
  • Great list of resources: http://www.psichi.org/pubs/search.aspx?category1=7
  • Writing a good personal statement: http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_98.asp
historical conceptions of abnormal behavior
Historical Conceptions of Abnormal Behavior
  • Mental disorders have existed in all cultures
  • Treatment based on how they were explained
  • Three dominant historical traditions:
    • Supernatural
    • Biological
    • Psychological
the supernatural tradition
The Supernatural Tradition
  • Causes of mental illness:
  • External, supernatural causes (e.g., demons)
  • Battle of good vs. evil (e.g., sin)
  • Movement of moon and stars
the supernatural tradition1
The Supernatural Tradition
  • Treatment approaches:
    • Exorcism
    • Torture
    • Beatings
    • Crude surgeries (e.g., trephining)
    • Hanging patient over snake pit
    • “Hydrotherapy”
    • Witch hunts