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Computer Architecture
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  1. Princess Sumaya University for Technology Computer Architecture Dr. Esam Al_Qaralleh

  2. Review computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  3. Course Syllabus Grading • The first priority: Maximize Learning • Your grade will depend on how much you have learned • 2 midterm exams (40% to 50%). • Quizzes and homework's (20% to 10%). • Final Exam (40%) • Activity in the class • Questions and discussion in the class give you points and improve the quality of teaching. computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  4. Course Syllabus Text Book Structured Computer Organization Andrew S. Tanenbaum Prentice-Hall, 4th Edition, 1999 Reference Books Computer Architecture; A Quantative Approach John L. Hennessy & David A. Patterson Morgan Kaufmann, 3ed Edition, 2003 Computer System Architecture M. Morris Mano Prentice Hall, 3ed Edition, 1993 computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  5. Course Syllabus Class Rules • Attendance to class should be on time • Very late attendance will be count as an absent. • Using Mobile Phone is NOT ALLOWED during class. • Questions and Discussions is the best way to communicate computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  6. What is a digital computer ? • A digital computer is a machine composed of the following three basic components • Input/Output • Central Processing Unit (CPU) • Memory Computer Architecture

  7. The Von Neumann Machine, 1945 • The Von Neumann model consists of five major components: • input unit • output unit • ALU • memory unit • control unit. • Sequential Execution computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  8. Von Neumann Model • A refinement of the Von Neumann model, the system bus model has a CPU (ALU and control), memory, and an input/output unit. • Communication among components is handled by a shared pathway called the system bus, which is made up of the data bus, the address bus, and the control bus. There is also a power bus, and some architectures may also have a separate I/O bus. computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  9. Computer Architecture

  10. The CPU • CPU (central processing unit) is an older term for processor and microprocessor, the central unit in a computer containing the logic circuitry that performs the instructions of a computer's programs.  • NOTABLE TYPES - RISC: Reduced Instruction Set Computer -Introduced in the mid 1980s -Requires few transistors -capable of executing only a very limited set of instructions - CISC: Complex Instruction Set Computer -complex CPUs that had ever-larger sets of instructions Computer Architecture

  11. RISC or CISC “The great Controversy” • RISC proponents argue that RISC machines are both cheaper and faster, and are therefore the machines of the future. • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler, RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software. They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway. • The TRUTH! CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike. Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips. And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips. Computer Architecture

  12. Under the hood of a typical CPU Computer Architecture

  13. What you need to Know about a CPU • Processing speed - The clock Frequency is one measure of how fast a computer is ( however, the length of time to carry out an operation depends not only on how fast the processor cycles, but how many cycles are required to perform a given operation. • Voltage requirement Transistors (electronic switches) in the CPU requires some voltage to trigger them. - In the pre-486DX66 days, everything was 5 volts - As chips got faster and power became a concern, designers dropped the chip voltage down to 3.3 volts (external Voltage) and 2.9V or 2.5V core voltage Computer Architecture

  14. More on Voltage Requirements… • Power consumption equates largely with heat generation, which is a primary enemy in achieving increased performance. Newer processors are larger and faster, and keeping them cool can be a major concern. • Reducing power usage is a primary objective for the designers of notebook computers, since they run on batteries with a limited life. (They also are more sensitive to heat problems since their components are crammed into such a small space). • Compensate for by using lower-power semiconductor processes, and shrinking the circuit size and die size. Newer processors reduce voltage levels even more by using what is called a dual voltage, or split rail design Computer Architecture

  15. More on Dual Voltage Design … A split rail processor uses two different voltages. • The external or I/O voltage is higher, typically 3.3V for compatibility with the other chips on the motherboard. • The internal or core voltage is lower: usually 2.5 to 2.9 volts. This design allows these lower-voltage CPUs to be used without requiring wholesale changes to motherboards, chipsets etc. Computer Architecture

  16. Power consumption verses speed of some processors Computer Architecture

  17. MEMORY • Computers have hierarchies of memories that may be classified according to Function, Capacity and Response Times. -Function "Reads" transfer information from the memory; "Writes" transfer information to the memory: -Random Access Memory (RAM) performs both reads and writes. -Read-Only Memory (ROM) contains information stored at the time of manufacture that can only be read. -Programmable Read-Only Memory (PROM) is ROM that can be written once at some point after manufacture. -Capacity bit = smallest unit of memory (value of 0 or 1); byte = 8 bits; In modern computers, the total memory may range from say 16 MB in a small personal computer to several GB (gigabytes) in large supercomputers. Computer Architecture

  18. More on memory … • Memory Response Memory response is characterized by two different measures: -Access Time(also termed response time or latency) defines how quickly the memory can respond to a read or write request. -Memory Cycle Timerefers to the minimum period between two successive requests of the memory. -Access times vary from about 80 ns [ns = nanosecond = 10^(-9) seconds] for chips in small personal computers to about 10 ns or less for the fastest chips in caches and buffers. For various reasons, the memory cycle time is more than the speed of the memory chips (i.e., the length of time between successive requests is more than the 80 ns speed of the chips in a small personal computer). Computer Architecture

  19. Computer Architecture

  20. The I/O BUS • A Computer transfers data from disk to CPU, from CPU to memory, or from memory to the display adapter etc. To avoid having a separate circuits between every pair of devices, the BUS is used. Definition: The Bus is simply a common set of wires that connect all the computer devices and chips together Computer Architecture

  21. Different functions for Different wires of the bus Some of these wires are used to transmit data. Some send housekeeping signals, like the clock pulse. Some transmit a number (the "address") that identifies a particular device or memory location Use of the address The computer chips and devices watch the address wires and respond when their identifying number (address) is transmitted before they can transfer data Problem! Starting with machines that used the 386 CPU, CPUs and memory ran faster than other I/O devices Solution - Separate the CPU and memory from all the I/O. Today, memory is only added by plugging it into special sockets on the main computer board. Computer Architecture

  22. Bus Speeds Multiple Buses with different speeds is an option or a single bus supporting different speeds is used In a modern PC, there may be a half dozen different Bus areas. There is certainly a "CPU area" that still contains the CPU, memory, and basic control logic. There is a "High Speed I/O Device" area that is either a VESA Local Bus (VLB) or an PCI Bus Computer Architecture

  23. Some Bus Standards • ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) bus • In 1987 IBM introduced a new Microchannel (MCA) bus • The other vendors developed an extension of the older ISA interface called EISA • VESA Local Bus (VLB), which became popular at the start of 1993 Computer Architecture

  24. More Bus Standards … • The PCI bus was developed by Intel • PCI is a 64 bit interface in a 32 bit package • The PCI bus runs at 33 MHz and can transfer 32 bits of data (four bytes) every clock tick. • That sounds like a 32-bit bus! However, a clock tick at 33 MHz is 30 nanoseconds, and memory only has a speed of 70 nanoseconds. When the CPU fetches data from RAM, it has to wait at least three clock ticks for the data. By transferring data every clock tick, the PCI bus can deliver the same throughput on a 32 bit interface that other parts of the machine deliver through a 64 bit path. Computer Architecture

  25. Things to know about I/O Bus • Buses transfer information between parts of a computer. Smaller computers have a single bus; more advanced computers have complex interconnection strategies. Things to know about the bus • Transaction = Unit of communication on bus. • Bus Master= The module controlling the bus at a particular time. • Arbitration Protocol= Set of signals exchanged to decide which of two competing modules will control a bus at a particular time. • Communication Protocol= Algorithm used to transfer data on the bus. • Asynchronous Protocol= Communication algorithm that can begin at any time; requires overhead to notify receivers that transfer is about to begin. Computer Architecture

  26. Things to know about the bus continued … • Synchronous Protocol= Communication algorithm that can begin only at well-know times defined by a global clock. • Transfer Time= Time for data to be transferred over the bus in single transaction. • Bandwidth= Data transfer capacity of bus; usually expressed in bits per second (bps). Sometimes termed throughput. • Bandwidth and Transfer Time measure related things, but bandwidth takes into account required overheads and is usually a more useful measure of the speed of the bus. Computer Architecture

  27. PERFORMANCE AND APPLICATION CHANGE OVER TIME computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  28. Performance • Both Hardware and Software affect performance: • Algorithm determines number of source-level statements • Language/Compiler/Architecture determine machine instructions • Processor/Memory determine how fast instructions are executed computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  29. Tasks of Computer Architects • Computer architects must design a computer to meet functional requirements as well as price, power, and performance goals. Often, they also have to determine what the functional requirements are, which can be a major task. • Once a set of functional requirements has been established, the architect must try to optimize the design. • Here are three major application areas and their main requirements: • Desktop computers: focus on optimizing cost-performance as measured by a single user, with little regard for program size or power consumption, • Server computers – focus on availability, scalability, and throughput cost-performance, • Embedded computers – driven by price and often power issues, plus code size is important. computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  30. Where is the Market? computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  31. Applications Change over Time • Data-sets & memory requirements  larger • Cache & memory architecture become more critical • Standalone  networked • IO integration & system software become more critical • Single task  multiple tasks • Parallel architectures become critical • • Limited IO requirements  rich IO requirements • 60s: tapes & punch cards • 70s: character oriented displays • 80s: video displays, audio, hard disks • 90s: 3D graphics; networking, high-quality audio • 00s: real-time video, immersion, … computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  32. Application Properties toExploit in Computer Design • Locality in memory/IO references • Programs work on subset of instructions/data at any point in time • Both spatial and temporal locality • Parallelism • Data-level (DLP): same operation on every element of a data sequence • Instruction-level (ILP): independent instructions within sequential program • Thread-level (TLP): parallel tasks within one program • Multi-programming: independent programs • Pipelining • Predictability • Control-flow direction, memory references, data values computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  33. Levels of Machines • There are a number of levels in a computer, from the user level down to the transistor level. computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  34. Computer Architecture • A modern meaning of the term computer architecturecovers three aspects of computer design: • instruction set architecture, • computer organization and • computer hardware. • Instruction Set Architecture - ISA refers to the actual programmer-visible machine interface such as instruction set, registers, memory organization and exception handling. Two main approaches: RISC and CISC architectures. • A computer organization and computer hardware are two components of the implementation of a machine. computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  35. How Do the Pieces Fit Together? Application Operating System Compiler Firmware Instruction Set Architecture Memory system Instr. Set Proc. I/O system Datapath & Control Digital Design Circuit Design computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  36. Instruction Set Architecture (ISA) • Complex Instruction Set (CISC) • Single instructions for complex tasks (string search, block move, FFT, etc.) • Usually have variable length instructions • Registers have specialized functions • Reduced Instruction Set (RISC) • Instructions for simple operations only • Usually fixed length instructions • Large orthogonal register sets computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  37. RISC and CISC Architecture • RISC – Reduced Instruction Set Computer • CISC – Complex (and Powerful) Instruction Set Computer • What does MIPS stand for? • Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages. • MIPS processor is one of the first RISC processors. Again, all processors announced after 1985 have been of RISC architecture. • What is the main example of CISC architecture processor? • Intel processors (in over 90% computers). computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  38. RISC Architecture • RISC designers focused on two critical performance techniques in computer design: • the exploitation of instruction-level parallelism, first through pipelining and later through multiple instruction issue, • the use of cache, first in simple forms and later using sophisticated organizations and optimizations. computer arctecture ~ PSUT

  39. RISC ISA Characteristics • All operations on data apply to data in registers and typically change the entire register; • The only operations that affect memory are load and store operations that move data from memory to a register or to memory from a register, respectively; • A small number of memory addressing modes; • The instruction formats are few in number with all instructions typically being one size; • Large number of registers; • These simple properties lead to dramatic simplifications in the implementation of advanced pipelining techniques, which is why RISC architecture instruction sets were designed this way. computer arctecture ~ PSUT

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