 Download Download Presentation CHAPTER 7 DATA HANDALING

# CHAPTER 7 DATA HANDALING

Download Presentation ## CHAPTER 7 DATA HANDALING

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1. CHAPTER 7 DATA HANDALING Prepared By : VINAY ALEXANDER (विनय अलेक्सजेंड़र) PGT(CS) ,KV JHAGRAKHAND

2. DATA TYPE:- To identify the data & associated operation of handling it.There are 2 type of data types in c++1.Fundamental data type2.Derived data type

3. 1)FUNDAMENTAL TYPES –IT IS THOSE THAT ARE NOT COMPOSED OF OTHER DATA TYPE (2)DEIVED TYPES-IT IS THOSE THAT ARE CONSTRUCATED FROM THE FUNDAMENTAL TYPE.

4. FUNDAMENTAL DATA TYPE:-There are 5 data types of fundamental data type:-1.int2.char3.void4.double5.float.

5. 1. int data type:- It is a integer or whole number that is NUMBER WITHOUT FRACTIONS such as 5,9,-10,0 etc. Width of a data type refers to the amount of memory space required to store the data type.Range: Range for int type is calculated as:Range: - 2 n-1 to 2 n-1-1 where n is the width of a data type

6. 2.Char data type( FOR CHARACTER)-ANY THING ENCLOSED IN SINGLE QUOTES REPRESENTED CHARACTER DATA IN C++ . They can store any member of the c++ implementation’s basic character from this set is stored in a character variable, its value is equivalent to the integer code of that character. Example:-char ch=‘A’ ;

7. FLOAT DATA TYPE(FOR FLOATING-POINT NUMBERS)-A NUMBER HAVINGFRACTIONAL PART IS A FLOATING NUMBER EXAMPLE:-float x=10.2

8. DOUBLE DATA TYPE(FOR DOUBLE PRECISIONS FLOATING-POINT NUMBERS): It is also useful in handling floating point number. It occupies twice as much memory as type float and stores floating-point numbers with much larger range and precision.

9. VOID DATA TYPE(FOR EMPTY SET OF VALUES AND NON-RETURNINIG FUNCTION): It specifies an empty set of value.It is used as return type for function that do not return a value.

10. DATA TYPE MODIFIERS IT ALTER THE MEANING OF THE BASE TYPE TO FIT VARIOUS SITUATION MORE PRECISELY THE LIST OF MODIFIRES ARE- • SIGNED:Number starting with negative to positive • UNSIGNED:All are positive value • LONG • SHORT

11. INTEGER TYPES

12. CHARACTER TYPE

13. FLOATING –POINT TYPES

14. //program to display ASCII code#include<iostream.h>#include<conio.h>void main( ){clrscr( );char ch=‘A’;int num=ch;cout<<“The ASCII code for “<<ch<<“is”<<num<<“\n”;cout<<“Adding 1 to the character code:\n”;ch=ch+1;num=ch;cout<<“The ASCII code for”<<ch<<“is”<<num<<“\n”;getch( );}

15. DERIVED DATA TYPE: It constructed from the fundamental data types.Ex. Of derived data type:-Array, Functions, Pointers, References, Constants, Classes, Structures, Union and Enumerations.

16. ARRAY: It is a collection of element of same data type under a common name.EXAMPLE:-int x

17. FUNCTION: It is a collection of statement that perform a specific tasks and return a value.Example: /* w.a.p(using function) to accept a number and print its cube. */#include<iostream.h>#include<conio.h>float cube(float);int main(){clrscr();float num;cout<<“enter a number:”;cin>>num;cout<<“\n” <<the cube of “<<num<<“is”<<cube(num)<<“\n”;getch();return 0;}float cube(float a){return a*a*a;}

18. int X = 547; int *ptr; ptr=X; EXAMPLE FOR POINTER: HERE: Veriable name Contents Location X 547 4000 ptr 4036 4000 According to above figure, By the help of ptr variable we stored the address of variable X in address 4036

19. QUESTION:-How many value return by a function?ANSWER:- ONE

20. REFERENCE: It is a variable provides an alias(alternative name) for previously defined variables. A reference declaration consist of base data (ampersand(&)) a reference variables name (previously defined). EXAMPLE:-int total;int & sum=total;total=100;cout<<sum<<total;

21. CONSTANT: Constant Variables: its value cannot be alter during program run or execution of program.EXAMPLE:-const int x=100;

22. User defined derived Data typesCLASS: It is a collection of member data and member function. And it is also a collection of objects.

23. EXAMPLE:- Class department{ char name; int num_emp; char h_o_d;public : add( ) ; delete( ) ; modify ( ); print( );};department sales, purchase, import, accounts;

24. STRUCTURE: A structure is a collection of variables under a single name. These variables can be of different types, and each has a name which is used to select it from the structure. A structure is a convenient way of grouping several pieces of related information together.EXAMPLE:-

25. Struct sturec { int rollno; char name ; int class ; float marks; char grade;};sturec newstu;

26. UNION: It is a memory location that shared by two or more different variables of different types at different time and defining union is a similar to defining structure.

27. A union is like a structure in which all members are stored at the same address. Members of a union can only be accessed one at a time. The union data type was invented to prevent memory fragmentation. The union data type prevents fragmentation by creating a standard size for certain data. Just like with structures, the members of unions can be accessed with the . and -> operators.

28. ENUMERATION: It is an alternative method for naming integer constants is often more convenient than const. Example:enum{ START,PAUSE,GOO } ;enumeration values are by default assigned increasing from 0.

29. Variables: Variables are locations in memory in which values can be stored. Each one has a name ,a type , and a value. => There are two values associated with a symbolic variable: 1.rvalue(are-value):Its data value , stored at some location in memory. 2.lvaue(el-value): its location value , that is , the address in memory at which its value is stored.

30. Memory Address Data value of Variable Variable's name 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 int A=10,C=25; A C

31. =>Declaring Variables: Variable declaration consist of a type and a variable name: Example: int age,x; // declares age and x of integer type Note: 1. Variable names in C++ can start with a letter or an underscore( _ ). 2. They cannot start with a number. After the first character. your variable names can include any letter or number. => Incorrect variable names 1. 6abc 2. /abc => correct variable names 1. ABC 2. _6abc

32. Initialization of variables: Variables are initialized (assigned an value) with an equal sign followed by a constant expression. The general form of initialization is: =>variable name = value; Variables can be initialized (assigned an initial value) in their declaration. The initializer consists of an equal sign followed by a constant expression as follows: =>type variable name = value;

33. Example:-int y;y=10; int y=10; int y(10); For declarations without an initializer: variables with static storage duration are implicitly initialized with NULL (all bytes have the value 0); the initial value of all other variables is undefined.

34. =>Dynamic Initialization: A variable can be initialized at run time using expression at the place of declaration. Example: float avg,sum; int count; avg =sum/count; // Dynamic Initialization =>The Access Modifier Const: The const keyword create constant. The access of the constant variable is readable only. Example: int val=10;// its value can be changed in the program at any time. const int total=100; //it value can never be changed during program run.

35. => Formatting OUTPUT: It is used to set the output screens. There are two type of I/O manipulator. 1. setw( ) 2.setprecision( ). Above two I/O manipulator include in header file iostream.h 1.setw( ): The setw( ) manipulator sets the width of the field assigned for the output.It takes the size of the field(in number of character) as a parameter . By default, values are right-justified in the space provided. We can change this. For example: cout<<setw(6)<<“R”; output: _ _ _ _ _R

36. =>Setprecision( ):The setprecision manipulator sets the total number of digits to be displayed when floating point numbers are printed. Example: cout<<setprecision(5)<<123.456; Output: 123.46 It is used to set the number of decimal places to be displayed. cout.setf(ios::fixed); Once the flag has been set , the number you pass to setprecision( ) is the number of decimal places you want displayed. cout<<setf(ios::fixed); cout<<setprecision(5)<<12.345678; Output: 12.345678

37. => Additional IOS flags: cout.setf(ios::fixed); “fixed”i.e., ios::fixed is referred to as a format option. Other option are following: 1.left-> left justify the output. 2.right-> right justify the output. 3.howpoint-> display decimal point and trailing zeros for all floating point number. 4.uppercase-> display the “e” in E notation as “E” rather than “e”. 5.showpos-> display a leading plus sign before positive values. 6.scientific-> Display floating point number in scientific (“E”) notation. 7.fixed->display floating point number in normal notation.-no trailing zeroes and no scientific notation

38. THE END…