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  1. 一、考核方式

  2. 1. 形成性考核:以平时作业为主,占20%; 2.课程终结性考试(卷面满分为100 分): (1)口试:占15%,时间为10分钟,其中准备时间5分钟,连续发言等5分钟) (2)笔试:占85%;时间为2个小时.

  3. 二、笔试题型: • 1、听力: 多项选择 (一个conversation / panel discussion, 8题) 正误判断 (一段monologue, 7题),共占 15%。

  4. 2、知识: 多项选择 (Multiple Choice, 10 题)、 正误判断 (True or False,10 题) 共占 40%。 (出自教材,各知识点)

  5. 3、阅读理解: 三篇短文, 前二篇多项选择、 第三篇为正误判断, 共占 30%。

  6. 4、简述: 列举题、 简答题、 问答题等,占15%。 (出自教材,各知识点)

  7. 二、新考试题型的特点 • 1、保留口试。 • 2、涉及教材内容方面有较大的增加。如第二大项的 knowledge Test 题量未增,但分值 由20分增加为40分; • 第四大项增加了与课文内容有关的列举题、简答题、问答题等,共15分。 • 3、取消了原来的写作题。

  8. 2002年.7月 • 1.      Make a presentation on how English learns from other languages through borrowing.

  9. This is one of the topics we discussed in Unit 1. You should have a lot to say about it. Make sure you use examples to illustrate your points. • Note that you can focus on one language, e.g. how English learns from Chinese through borrowing.

  10. The vocabulary of English includes borrowings from a great variety of languages. The core of English is Germanic. There are very many borrowings from French and from the Classical languages, Latin and Greek as well as Chinese.  

  11. English vocabulary borrowed from Chinese • 1. china: 瓷器in the sense of porcelain. • 2. tea:茶 tsa, cha. • 3. nankeen: 南京棉布 • 4. coolie: 苦力 • 5. kowtow, kotow: 叩头 • 6. kung fu: 功夫Chinese form of karate. • 7. sampan: 舢板 • 8. yin yang 阴阳 • 9. ping pong 乒乓 • 10. Tao,Dao,Taoism,道(教) • 11. Confucianism,Confucius 儒家,孔子

  12. Chinese vocabulary borrowed from English • 水门汀 cement, • 听 tin, • 沙龙 salon, • 沙发 sofa, • 咖啡 coffee, • 可卡因 cocaine, • 尼古丁 nicotine, • 尼龙 nylon,

  13. All languages borrow vocabulary to enrich their own languages. English is the same.

  14. 2.      Make a presentation on whether it is correct to say English is more beautiful than Chinese or vice versa. Note that in Unit 4 you did some reading on the differences between statements about language, and statements about personal taste or judgments. Differences should be included in your presentation.

  15. Linguists do not seem to think some languages are really better or beautiful than the others are. They say language is equal or that there is parity among them.

  16. It means they all deserve respect. It means that all languages must be taken seriously and all languages serve perfectly well the purposes of those who use them.

  17. So if someone say that a particular language is harsh or ugly, then that’s an expression of his or her taste.

  18. But languages are unequal in terms of prestige. When people say that one variety has more prestige than another, that means the variety belongs to the speakers who have wealth, education, power, and all that goes with those things. Using the prestige variety makes people think well of the user.

  19. Standard English spoken with a Received Pronunciation is a prestige variety. The difference is in the social information they give about the user.

  20. Languages and dialects are valued differently and used differently for historical, political, economic and cultural reason.

  21. 1.      Make a presentation on how you feel about the old English In Unit 2 you were exposed to the English at Chaucer’s time. Present how you fell about this kind of English. You may focus on the following questions: Are the words different both in sound and spelling? Is grammar different? Are the meanings of some words different?

  22. I am so curious about the English at the Chaucer’s time . It’s very interesting to see what English of the Chaucer’s time looks like. At the Chaucer’s time , the words are quite different both in sound and spelling.

  23. For example: “Aprille” is for April , “shures” is for showers,” fowles” is for birds while “melodye” is for music. etc. • Besides this, the grammar is also different. eg. “That slepen al the nyght with open ye” . It means “ little birds that sleep with their eyes open all night”. “ smale fowles maken melodye. “. It means “ Little birds make music.”

  24. So you can see how different they are from the modern English. The further back in the past, the more difficult it is and the longer it takes.I cannot understand them without a good dictionary. If I have to study Chaucer’s English, I should ask for a good translation into Modern English.

  25. 2003年1月 • 1.      Explain the difference between a “ living” language and a “ dead “ language. • Give examples of each. Explain how these language types may be relevant to life today. Also explain how and why language changes over the life of an individual in any country.

  26. The number of languages spoken in the world is 4000 to 5000 , but no one can give a more exact number because the number depends on what counts as a dialect and what counts as a language, and some languages have disappeared and we know nothing about them.

  27. When we speak of languages as living or dead, we use a metaphor, and means the languages which have living or no living speakers. • For example : Latin is a dead because it has no living speakers now. It is usually used in academic writing.

  28. 2.      Give a brief history of the origins of the English language. In your talk you should be able to clearly demonstrate you understand what languages influenced the modern English language. You should also be able to give some language examples of words that are evidence of these origins.

  29. From the first century BC until the 5th century AD, Scandinavian people ---- Angles, Saxons, Jutes started to settle and to invade from the middle of the fifth century and until the 8th and 9th centuries AD. They brought with them the dialects they spoke, and these became the dialects of England (Angle—land).

  30. From the 11th century on, it was in the time that Norman French was the language of power, Latin for learning and religion, and English (all the varieties of English) for common people’s use. Later English gradually gained ground among educated people.

  31. A very important writer named Geoffrey Chaucer chose to write in English. And most important of all, the printer Caxton set up the first printing press in London in 1475, and chose to write and print in the English of London --- this carried the London Standard English all over the country.

  32. Standard English started in the South East. It began as a regional variety, used in just one part of England. Yet it includes the cities of London, Oxford, and Cambridge. In the late 14th and 15th centuries, London was a port, the center of government, economic and culture.

  33. So the way English was used in that part of the country came to be regarded as the English of education, of publishing ,of official and government use.

  34. 3. Explain the differences between the term, “ Received Pronunciation” and “ Standard English “ . • How did these terms originate ? Is your answer you should give definitions of these terms and be able to demonstrate clear understanding of their origins and how they may relate to other forms of the English language.

  35. When we speak of Standard English we mean the English of writing used worldwide, that is to say, we are talking about its grammatical systems , vocabulary or lexicon ;discourse; the spelling conventions;the way that English text is punctuated.

  36. Received pronunciation is an accent, but there is one important difference between this accent and the regional accents. RP is not the accent of a particular region. It doesn’t belong to any one region, it is understood and accepted everywhere.

  37. Because RP is the accent of very many educated speakers, and because of its use by the BBC, it is a prestige accent. Users of a RP are likely to be thought well of, and treated with respect. This is a good reason in itself for its use as a model.

  38. Standard English can be pronounced in many different ways. Received Pronunciation is just one of them. RP are the educated Southern British English (BBC English) and the educated North American English (Network English).

  39. 2003.7.9 • 1. Make a presentation on how you fell about the social varieties. ( P.57)

  40. Social verities refers to the variety associated with the speakers’ social standing and educational level, associated with a part of society that is rich or poor , well educated or poorly educated , young and elderly.

  41. Make a presentation on how you feel about the regional varieties.

  42. There are different varieties of English that is spoken and understood in different parts of the world. These are regional varieties or regional dialects. Both native speakers and second language users of English find some of these hard to understand. The English of writing - Standard English -- is similar throughout the English speaking world.

  43. There are variations of American English, British English, Australian English African English and Singaporean English,etc. It is true that even a native speaker of English from one place may not be able to understand the spoken in another English speaking area or country.

  44. In Unit 1, we heard a short sample of four texts with very similar meanings spoken in the accents characteristic of four places in Britain. They are Carnal, London Cockney , Northumberland, and the Scottish borders. We can identify the regional differences in English vocabulary :

  45. SE : friends • Cornwall : comrades • Northumberland : mates • Scottish borders : mates

  46. Two varieties -- Educated British and Educated American English -- are widely taught and learned. They are used and understood wherever English is in use.

  47. So people belonging to different generations use English little differently. The elderly generation usually speak formal , precise , traditional and careful oral English, while teenagers usually speak slang , informal , slovenly , inaccurate , disorderly oral English.

  48. Eg. In the conversation between Tim and Mrs. Robinson, they understand each other , but she notices the difference between her own English and Tim.Grandmother does’t hope Tim uses jopkey names for classroom subjects. Bilge for Biology; Stinks for Chemistry, lab of laboratory. These words are make her feel old and shut out from the company of Tim.

  49. “ I duuni” for I donn’t know.” But when Tim is a little older, he will probably use these words when he is with friends of his own age and speak rather differently to someone else much older than he is.

  50. But grandmother does not like it. She thinks he should speak more formally to show his respect for her, as an older person.