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The Expansion of Industry Natural Resources, Recovery & Refining Techniques, and New Inventions
In 1859, Edwin L. Drake successfully used a steam drill to drill for oil in PA. The oil boom spread throughout KY, OH, IL, IN, and TX. Petroleum-refining industries rose up in Cleveland and Pittsburg, and these companies refined the oil to gain kerosene. Black Gold Interestingly enough, gasoline was a byproduct that was thrown away originally since they found no use for it… that was until the automobile industry was born.
Abundant deposits of both coal and iron were found throughout the U.S. and began to be actively mined in the late 19th century. Due to irons softness and ability to rust, a process was needed to strengthen it. Henry Bessemer and William Kelly had developed a process to do so in 1850. The Bessemer process injects air into molten iron to remove carbon and other impurities. This method led to the U.S. producing 90% of its steel. Bessemer Steel Process This process was eventually replaced by the open-hearth system, but opened the door for America to mass produce this resource.
Railroads became the biggest customers for steel, but steel was also essential in the inventions of barbed wire and the steel plow. Steel also allowed engineers and architects to build innovative structures. The Brooklyn Bridge was considered a wonder of the world upon its completion in 1883. New Uses for Steel Skyscrapers also became a new innovative design. William Le Baron Jenney designed the Home Insurance building in Chicago.
Completed in 1883, the Brooklyn Bridge spanned 1,595 feet with tower support structures higher than any man made building on Earth (except the Pyramids).
Thomas Alva Edison became a pioneer in the electrical industry and established his research lab at Menlo Park, NJ in 1876. Edison perfected the incandescent light bulb and, along with George Westinghouse, made electricity safer. In what ways did electricity change business and society? The Power of Electricity Ran machines, instead of water Led to home appliances Led to electric commuter cars Factories and plants can be placed anywhere.
There were several new inventions, other than electricity, which changed life. Christopher Sholes invented the typewriter in 1867. This opened new jobs for women in the clerical field. Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson made the 2nd largest invention of the time: the telephone. The typewriter and phone changed the workforce. In 1870 only 5% of women worked in businesses, by 1910 they made up 40% Inventions Change Lifestyles Inventions in industry also reduced the work day and work load of factory workers, as well as allowing more women to work in factories.
HW: 14.3 SpNotes” • If your paper is still not in, you have lost a total of 12pts.” • Presentations began Friday, be prepared!” Conclusions