Adverb Subordinate Clause ADVSC • Function: Modify verbs, adjectives and adverbs. • Location in a sentence: Anywhere. • Punctuation rules: • If ADVSC begins a sentence, always place a comma after it. • If ADVSC is after independent clause, comma usually not needed.
Examples of ADVSC • Because I did not study for the test sufficiently, I barely passed. • WheneverMiranda looks at me, I just want to hide my face until she goes away. • My sister will need to do the dishes as soon as she can so that she will be ready when her friends arrive.
Adjective Subordinate Clause ADJSC • Function: modify nouns or pronouns • Begins with relative pronouns, (or occasionally where and when) • Location: always follows word modified • Punctuation rules: • if ADJSC is essential to meaning of sentence, no comma is needed. • If ADJSC is not essential, you need commas
Examples of ADJSC • The musicians whom we enjoyed more than any others were the members from UNT’s One O’clock Lab Band. • Shakespeare’s sonnets, which I have read more than once, are among my favorite poems. • Have you seen the new car that Kenny is driving?
Noun Subordinate Clause NSC • Functions just as a noun functions • If NSC: • Is a subject (S)it tells who or what the sentence is about • Is a predicate nominative (PN) it identifies the subject. • Is a direct object (DO) it tells whom or what receives the verb’s action • Is an indirect object (IO) it tells to whom, to what, for who or for what an action is done. • Is an object of the preposition (OP) it is being connected to another word in the sentence by that preposition • Is an appositive (AP) it identifies the noun that comes before it
Locations of NSC • If the subject, the NSC is usually at the beginning of the sentence. • If it is the PN, the NSC follows the linking verb. • If it is the DO, the NSC follows an action verb. • If it is the IO, the NSC comes between an action verb and a direct object. • If it is an OP, the NSC follows a preposition. • If it is an AP, the NSC comes right after the noun it modifies.
Punctuation • The NSC is not separated by commas unless it is functioning as a non-essential appositive
Examples of the NSC • How Louis survived four days in a blizzard on Mt. McKinley is the subject of his new book. NSC=S • A solution to the problem is what I am seeking. NSC=PN • Achilles believes that Agamemnon has dishonored him. NSC=DO • Ms. Jamison will give whoever needs one a ticket to the fair. NSC=IO • The meaning of whatever you just said is apparently beyond my understanding. NSC=OP • Yesterday’s Supreme Court ruling, that anyone accused of doing a crime must first be read their Miranda rights, has been established practice for some time. NSC=AP