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Lung Cancer. By: Ashleen Atchue and Mario Tovar. Cancer Basic’s.

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lung cancer

Lung Cancer

By: Ashleen Atchueand Mario Tovar

cancer basic s
Cancer Basic’s
  • Cancer is the name given for diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control and are able to invade other tissues. Cancer cells can spread to other parts of the body through various forms such as the blood and lymph systems.
cancer basic s cont
Cancer Basic’s Cont.
  • Cancer is not just one disease but many diseases. There are more than 100 different types of cancer. Most cancers are named for the organ or type of cell in which they start - for example, cancer that begins in the colon is called colon cancer; cancer that begins in melanocytes of the skin is called melanoma.
origins of cancer
Origins of Cancer
  • Cancer begins from life's most basic unit of life the cell.
  • Sometimes however the process goes wrong and the genetic material or DNA becomes changed producing mutations that can affect cell growth and division.
  • Cells may suffer complications such as not dying when they should and producing “surpluses” of cells which ultimately develop into a mass of tissue or also known as a tumor.
a closer look at tumors benign tumors
A closer look at tumorsbenign tumors
  • Are not cancerous
  • Can often be removed
  • Are not very likely to come back
  • Cells from benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body
a closer look at tumors cont malignant tumors
A closer look at tumors cont.malignant tumors
  • Are cancerous
  • Can invade nearby tissues
  • Removal varies on locations
  • The spread of from one part of the body is called metastasis
top types of cancer in the u s
Top types of cancer in the u.s.
  • 1. Skin cancer
  • 2. Lung cancer
  • 3. Breast cancer
  • 4. Prostate cancer
  • 5. Colorectal cancer
  • 6. Kidney (renal) cancer
  • 7. Bladder cancer
  • 8. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
  • 9. Thyroid cancer
  • 10. Endometrial cancer
lung cancer1
Lung cancer
  • Lung cancer as clearly stated begins in the lungs
  • Once it starts in the lungs it can spread to the nose, down your windpipe (trachea), as well as the bronchi.
  • There are two main types of cancer
  • Non-small cell cancer
  • Small cell lung cancer
causes and risk factors
Causes and risk factors
  • Lung cancer is the deadliest type of cancer for both men and women with more deaths then breast, colon, and prostate cancer combined
  • Rare in people under 45
  • Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer
  • Specific risk factors include
  • Radiation therapy to the lungs
  • Radon gas
  • Family history
  • Asbestos
  • Exposure to cancer causing chemicals (uranium, beryllium, vinyl chloride, and nickel chromates)
  • High levels of air pollution
  • High levels of arsenic in drinking water
  • Beginning stages of lung cancer have almost no symptoms
  • Chest pain
  • Cough(that doesn’t go away)
  • Coughing up blood
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss without trying
  • Wheezing
  • Shortness of breath
  • Loss of appetite
symptoms cont
Symptoms Cont.
  • Often occur in the later stages these include
  • Bone pain or tenderness
  • Eyelid drooping
  • Facial paralysis
  • Hoarseness or voice change
  • Joint pain
  • Swallowing difficulty
  • Shoulder pain
  • Weakness
  • Shoulder pain
signs and tests
Signs and tests
  • Lung cancer is often confirmed and diagnosed through either a x-ray or CT
  • Non-small cell lung cancer is often confirmed through
  • Bone san
  • Chest x-ray
  • CBC
  • CT scan
  • PET scan
  • Sputum test
  • Thoracentesis
signs and tests cont
Signs and tests Cont.
  • Small cell lung cancer
  • Liver function tests
  • MRI
  • Sputum test (cytology, looking for cancer cells)
treatment non small cell cancer
Treatment non-small cell cancer
  • Treatment for this form that has not spread to nearby lymph nodes includes
  • Lobectomy
  • Wedge or segment removal
  • Pneumonectomy
  • Chemotherapy
  • Is used alone often when the cancer has spread outside the lung (stage IV)
  • Also commonly given before surgery or radiation to make those treatments more effective also none as neoadjuvant therapy
treatment cont non small cell cancer
Treatment Cont.non-small cell cancer
  • Radiation
  • Can be used coupled with chemotherapy if surgery is not a option
  • Alleviation of symptoms caused by cancer, such as swelling and breathing problems
  • The following treatments are used to relieve symptoms alone

- Photodynamic therapy uses a light to activate a inserted drug in specific areas of the body

  • Laser therapy which uses a small beam of light burns and kills cancer cells
treatment small cell cancer
Treatmentsmall cell cancer
  • Options for treatment are much more aggressive
  • Chemotherapy (taken by mouth or injected)
  • Combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy is given to advanced stages of small cell lung cancer that has spread to other areas of the body
top cancer killers
Top cancer killers
  • 1. Lung and bronchial cancer: 792,495 lives
  • 2. Colon and rectal cancer: 268,783 lives
  • 3. Breast cancer: 206,983 lives
  • 4. Pancreatic cancer: 162,878 lives
  • 5. Prostate cancer: 144,926 lives
  • 6. Leukemia: 108,740 lives
  • 7. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma: 104,407 lives
  • 8. Liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer: 79,773 lives
  • 9. Ovarian cancer: 73,638 lives
  • 10. Esophageal cancer: 66,659 lives
stages of non small cell cancer
Stages of non-small cell cancer
  • Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are assigned a stage from I to IV in order of severity.
  • In stage I, the cancer is confined to the lung.
stages of non small cell cancer1
Stages of non-small cell cancer
  • In stages II and III, the cancer is confined to the lung and, possibly, the lymph nodes.
stages of non small cell cancer2
Stages of non-small cell cancer
  • Stage IV cancer has spread outside of the lung to other parts of the body.
stages of small cell cancer
Stages of small cell cancer
  • Limited stage (LS) SCLC refers to cancer that is confined to its area of origin in the lung and lymph nodes
stages of non small cell cancer3
Stages of non-small cell cancer
  • In extensive-stage (ES) SCLC, the cancer has spread beyond the lung to other parts of the body.
top 5 ways of reducing a lung cancer incidence
Top 5 ways of reducing a lung cancer incidence
  • 1. STOP smoking NOW
  • 2. Fruits and Vegetables
  • 3. Test your home for Radon
  • 4. Workplace exposure
  • 5. Passive smoking AVOID IT
you tube
You tube