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Ending Opposition. Can I join in, I’m Austrian too!!!!. Learning Objective. Can a rainbow help us explain how Hitler became Fuhrer?. Ending Opposition. Input. The Reichstag fire 27 th February 1933. Was used by the Nazi Party to discredit the Communist Party.

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slide1

Ending Opposition

Can I join in, I’m Austrian too!!!!

slide2

Learning Objective

Can a rainbow help us explain how Hitler became Fuhrer?

slide3

Ending Opposition

Input

The Reichstag fire

27th February 1933.

Was used by the Nazi Party to discredit the Communist Party.

They blamed for starting the fire and over 4,000 communists were arrested.

Hitler used the emergency laws (A48) to ban the communists from campaigning for votes (defending themselves in public against the claims) and allowing the Nazis to arrest and imprison people without trial.

The aim was that less people would vote for the Communists and see them as a threat to society and democracy and vote for the Nazi Party instead.

slide4

Ending Opposition

Input

The Enabling Act

Following the March 1933 elections Hitler still did not have the two thirds majority he required to pass the Enabling Act.

The Enabling Act would allow him to pass lass without consent of the Reichstag.

After the March 1933 election Hitler banned the Communists from taking up the seats that they had one.

Hitler then used a combination of threats and intimidation of the SA and a deal with the Centre Party which allowed him to achieve the 2/3 majority required to pass the Enabling Act.

Hitler used the Enabling Act to ban all other political parties, effectively creating a one party state.

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Ending Opposition

Input

Trade Unions.

Trade Unions were potential opponents to the Nazis.

They could through there actions drive up wages. This would upset the industrialists and business men who helped fund the Nazi regime.

Demands for better working conditions could hinder the Nazis plans for the economy.

Strikes could cripple a government.

Trade Unionists were very likely to support the Communists.

Hitler banned trade unions in May 1933 and replaced them with a Nazi version The German Labour Front (Deutsche Arbeitsfront) or DAF.

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Ending Opposition

Input

Input

Political Parties.

Political opponents and speaking out against the Nazi Party presented an obvious challenge.

Hitler could not afford for people to challenge his and the Nazis authority.

Following the enabling act and the banning of the trade unions, Adolf Hitler banned all political parties other than the Nazi Party.

This may seem insane that this was possible today, but you must judge this n the context of the 1930’s. Germany’s experiment of democracy had failed (it was argued) many German people were happy to return to an autocratic state.

One people, one government, one leader!

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Ending Opposition

Input

Input

Local Government

Under the Weimar Constitution local governments had a great deal of power.

They had their own local parliaments (Lander Parliaments).

Hitler had control of the Reichstag but he didn’t have control of the Lander.

Hitler wanted the centre of power to be Berlin.

In January 1934, Hitler abolished the Landers, local governors would run the regions of Germany. These would be appointed by Hitler!

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Ending Opposition

Input

The night of the long knives

On the 30 June 1934. Hitler had a blood purge of his own party.

Hitler had people who he feared were opponents from within the Nazi Party murdered. Over a period of 4 days around 400 people including 150 senior members of the SA were murdered.

Leading figures included the x-chancellor of Germany General Von Schleicher.

Hitler also arrested the leader of the SA Ernst Rohm. Hitler felt threatened by the potential power of Rohm and his 3 million SA followers. The German army was also worried by Rohm and his SA. Rohm was also disliked by leading Nazis such as Himmler (leader of the SS) who stirred up rumours about Rohm

The SA would then merge into the SS

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Ending Opposition

Input

Input

President Hindenburg

August 1934, President Hindenburg dies aged 87.

Hitler declares himself Fuhrer and adds all the powers of President to his own.

The army are forced/encouraged to swear an oath of loyalty to him.

A plebiscite is held (a public vote) to confirm Hitler as Fuhrer.

Bombarded by propaganda and intimidation, the public voted by 90% in favour of Hitler becoming the Fuhrer.

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The

enabling

act

The

Trade

Unions

Reichstag

Fire

Removal of

opposition

Political

opponents

Death of

Hindenburg

The

night of

the long

knives

Local

Government

slide11

Richard

Of

York

Gave

Battle

In

Vein

Can you create your

own mnemonic to remember how Hitler got rid of opponents

and became Fuhrer using Richard of York gave battle in vein...

Review

slide13

BHS website- parents- homework-History-year10-LJG-Germany-12 ending opposition

The

enabling

act

The

Trade

Unions

Reichstag

Fire

Removal of

opposition

Political

opponents

Death of

Hindenburg

The

night of

the long

knives

Local

Government

slide14

The

enabling

act

The

Trade

Unions

Reichstag

Fire

Removal of

opposition

Political

opponents

Death of

Hindenburg

The

night of

the long

knives

Local

Government

slide15

1933

  • When Hilter became chancellor of Germany in 1933 he was in a very weak position.
  • Nazi support had fallen from 37% to 33%in 1932.
  • To control the Reichstag Hitler needed over 50% of the vote, he was well short of that.
  • Hitler could be sacked by President Hindenburg at any time.
  • There was only Hitler and two other Nazis in the coalition government. The nine other positions were filled by non-Nazis. Hindenburg and Papen thought they could control them.
  • Hindenburg and Papen thought they could control Hitler like a puppet.
  • Papen boasted to a friend ‘In two months we will have pushed Hitler into a corner so that he squeaks’.
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18 months later

  • By the end of 1934 Hitler was in a totally different position.
  • Papen had resigned.
  • Hindenburg was dead, Hitler was now Chancellor and President
  • The army had taken an oath of personal loyalty to Hitler.
  • The Nazis were the only political party.
  • Al threats to the Nazi Party had been removed.
  • Hitler had the power to introduce any law he wanted.
slide17

Explain ‘how’ a particular event, policy or trend occurred.

June 2010

2

(a) Explain how Hitler was able to overcome opposition to his government in the years 1933–34.

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2

(a) Explain how Hitler was able to overcome opposition to his government in the years 1933–34.

Because this is a question 2 you have a choice whether you wan to answer this question or not.

Because the wording of the question doesn’t include the word ‘changed’ then we know

it is looking at ‘ways’ in which something was achieved.

This helps with sentence starters they should be;

“One way in which . . .”

“ A second way that . . .”

“ A further way . . .”

You must then identify what it is that is trying to be achieved, in this question it is overcoming opposition.

Remember to try and link factors together.

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2

(a) Explain how Hitler was able to overcome opposition to his government in the years 1933–34.

Adolf Hitler was able to use a variety if ways to overcome opposition to his government between 1933-34.

One way in which Adolf Hitler was able to overcome opposition was through discrediting the Communist Party following the Reichstag Fire of February 1933. Hitler saw the Communist Party as direct opponents to the Nazi Party. Hitler used the fire to encourage President Hindenburg to allow Hitler to use the Emergency Laws (article 48). Hitler then blamed the fire on the communists following the arrest at the scène of Marius Van der Lubbe and immediately ordered the arrest of known communists; over 4,000 communists were arrested. Hitler then used article 48 to prevent the Communist Party from holding meetings and campaigning in the March 1933 elections. This would result in the Communist Party receiving fewer votes and strengthening the Nazi Party’s position in government. In the March 1933 elections the Communist Party received 81 seats (19 fewer) and the Nazi Party increased their number of seats from 196 to 288. The use of the Reichstag Fire and article 48 had been used effectively to overcome the threat of the Communist Party.

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2

(a) Explain how Hitler was able to overcome opposition to his government in the years 1933–34.

A further way in which Hitler was able to overcome opposition which linked to the Reichstag Fire was the passing of the Enabling Act. The Enabling Act would allow Adolf Hitler to rule without the consent of the Reichstag for 4 years if he could get 2/3 of the Reichstag to agree to pass the Enabling Act. Following the March 1933 election the Nazi Party were still short of the 2/3 majority, so Hitler used the Reichstag Fire to further discredit the Communist Party and ban them from taking their seats in the Reichstag. This meant that the Nazi Party were closer to the 2/3 majority that they needed. They achieved this through two ways, firstly they made a deal with the Centre Party that the Nazis would not interfere with the church and secondly they used the SA to intimidate members of the Reichstag before they voted. The result was that the Enabling Act was passed and Hitler was able to remove all political opponents by banning all political parties other than the Nazi Party.

slide21

2

(a) Explain how Hitler was able to overcome opposition to his government in the years 1933–34.

A final way in which Hitler overcame opponents to his government was through the blood purge of June 1934 or the night of the long knives. Following the death of President Hindenburg in 1934 Hitler identified his main opponents were from within his own Party, especially the leader of the SA Ernst Rohm. Hitler was concerned that Rohm was potentially vey powerful as he was in charge of the sturmabteilung (SA) which numbered 3 million people. Hitler was concerned that Rohm wanted to take control of the army as well and wanted to end the Nazi Party’s links with businessmen and industrialists. On 30th June 1934 Hitler purged his own party and Rohm along with other leading SA officials. In total 74 people were killed according to Hitler, it is more likely that the total is closer to 400.

Ultimately Hitler had been able to wipe out opposition within his own party. The fact that he was able to do this was because he had effectively ended opposition to him from outside the party beforehand through the Article 48 and the Enabling Act.

slide22

Explain ‘how’ a particular event, policy or trend occurred.

  • Explain how Germany recovered from its economic and political difficulties in the years 1924–29 under Stresemann’s leadership. (8)
  • b) Explain how Hitler used the Reichstag Fire to weaken opposition to the Nazis.
  • (8)
  • (a) Explain how Hitler dealt with the Catholic and Protestant churches in Germany in the years 1933–39.
  • (8)
  • (a) Explain how the Nazis used propaganda to win support in Germany in the years 1933–39.
  • (8)
  • a) Explain how the Weimar Republic dealt with attacks from right-wing and left-wing groups in the years 1919-22
  • (8)
  • b) Explain how the Nazi government dealt with the economic effects of the Great Depression in Germany in the years 1933-39
  • (8)