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VEGETABLES. Chapter 19. 3 ways to classify vegetables. 1. How do they grow? 2. What’s their flavor? 3. What color are they?. Botanical Names for Vegetables - Parts of plant from which they come. Tubers – potatoes. Botanical Names for Vegetables - Parts of plant from which they come.

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Chapter 19

3 ways to classify vegetables
3 ways to classify vegetables...
  • 1. How do they grow?
  • 2. What’s their flavor?
  • 3. What color are they?
botanical names for vegetables parts of plant from which they come1
Botanical Names for Vegetables - Parts of plant from which they come.
  • Bulbs –
    • chives, onions, garlic
Roots –
    • beets, turnips, carrot, radish
  • Stem –
    • asparagus, celery, mushroom
Leaves –
    • brussel sprouts, cabbage, greens,

lettuce, spinach.

  • Seeds –
    • beans, peas, corn
Flowers –
    • artichoke, cauliflower, broccoli
  • Fruit –
    • cucumber, eggplant, tomato, peppers, squash
what s their flavor
What’s their flavor?
  • Very Strong-flavored
    • Onions
    • Leeks
    • Garlic
strong flavored
  • Brussels Sprouts
types of vegetables
Types of vegetables...
  • Starchy
    • Includes:
      • Potatoes
      • Sweet potatoes
      • Corn
      • Legumes (dry beans)
veggies with a high water content
Veggies with a high water content
  • Includes:
      • Tomatoes
      • Lettuce
      • Celery
    • Sugar, starch, & cellulose
    • Supplies the body with energy
    • Potatoes are high in carbohydrates


  • Dried beans, lentils and legumes are great sources of protein
  • Protein builds, maintains and repairs tissue.
nutrients in vegetables
Vitamin A


Promotes normal growth of bones & teeth

Helps maintain healthy skin tissue & night vision

Vegetable sources:

Leafy green & deep-yellow vegetables

Broccoli, spinach, carrots, & squash

Nutrients in vegetables...
vitamin c
Vitamin C
  • Function:
      • Helps body form & maintain collagen
      • Helps body repair itself & fight infections
    • Vegetable sources:
      • Leafy greens
      • Broccoli, green peppers, tomatoes, & cabbage
nutrients in vegetables1
Nutrients in vegetables...
  • B Vitamins
    • Functions:
      • Prevents beriberi
      • Helps body use carbohydrates
      • Helps body break down proteins
    • Vegetable Sources:
      • Seed vegetables (dry beans)
      • Lima beans & peas
  • Functions:
    • Body needs 21 minerals to maintain good health
    • Needed to build bones, soft tissue, & other compounds
  • Vegetable sources:
    • Spinach (high in iron)
    • Kale (high in calcium)
color determines a plant s antioxidants





Red lycopene




Yellow lutein


Diallyl sulfide

Allyl methyl trisulfide

Color determines a plant’s antioxidants
  • Antioxidant molecules stave off damage to the body by removing unstable chemical by-products (free radicals) before they have a chance to interact with and do damage to our cells’ mechanisms.
antioxidant example
Antioxidant Example
  • When we rub lemon juice on an apple to keep it from browning, we are protecting it from exposure to oxygen, thus producing antioxidation.
  • Oxygen causes our body to “rust” (wear out early). Antioxidants can help prevent this damage.
phytonutrients in vegetables
PhytoNutrients in vegetables...
  • Chlorophyll (green)
    • Substance found in plants that makes them green
    • Reduces DNA damage
    • Food Sources – Dark green leafy veggies
phytonutrients in vegetables1
PhytoNutrients in vegetables...
  • Anthocyanins (purple)
    • Bolsters cellular antioxidant defenses; 
    • May contribute to maintenance of brain function
    • Food sources: eggplant
phytonutrients in vegetables2
PhytoNutrients in vegetables...

Red Lycopene (red)

* May contribute to maintenance of prostate health

* Tomatoes and processed tomato products

phytonutrients in vegetables3
PhytoNutrients in vegetables...

Beta-Carotene (orange)

  • neutralizes free radicals which may damage cells;
  • bolsters cellular antioxidant defenses
  • Food Sources: Carrots and various fruits
forms of vegetables selection storage

Desirable qualities


Bright Color


Absence of decay


Store in fridge

Eat in 2-3 days

Forms of Vegetables: Selection & Storage...
  • Advantages
      • Precooked
      • Convenient
    • Disadvantages
      • Higher in sodium
      • Possibly mushy texture
    • Storage
      • Store at room temperature
      • Use by expiration date, if given
  • Benefits
    • Partially prepared
    • No need to thaw before cooking
    • No sodium added
    • Retain the appearance & flavor fresh-picked veggies
    • Usually cost less than fresh
    • Available “out of season”
  • Storage
    • Keep frozen
    • Do not refreeze if thawed
  • Most common dried veggies are legumes
    • (dry beans)
  • Benefit
    • Long shelf life
  • Disadvantage
    • Must soak dry beans before cooking
  • Storage
    • Store in a cool dry place
prepare vegetables with care
Prepare vegetables with care...
  • Cook for the shortest time possible
    • Heat destroys some vitamins
  • Use as little water as possible
    • Some vitamins dissolve in the cooking water
  • Pare or cut just before cooking
    • Air and light destroy some vitamins

Prepare the largest pieces possible

    • To expose the smallest surface area to all of the above
  • Serve or save cooking liquid
    • Use it in soups, sauces, gravies, & stews
    • Don’t throw away the nutrients in the cooking water
changes in veggies during cooking
Changes in veggies during cooking...
  • The cellulose (fiber) becomes softened by the heat & moisture of cooking
  • The starch absorbs water, swells, and becomes easier to digest
  • Flavors & colors undergo changes
  • Some of the nutrients may be lost
methods of vegetable cookery
Methods of vegetable cookery...
  • Boiling
    • In a small amount of water in a covered pan
  • Bake veggies in their own skins after washing them thoroughly
french frying
French frying
  • Fry veggies after dipping in batter or crumbs
  • Fry them in hot oil deep enough to cover the veggies
stir frying
Stir frying

Stir fry veggies in 1-2 Tbsp. of fat in a skillet, pan, or wok

broiling or grilling
Broiling or Grilling
  • Brush veggies with fat or oil
  • Broil over or under direct heat
  • Steam mild-flavored veggies in a steamer over rapidly boiling water
  • Microwave can also be used to steam veggies
veggies cooked in the microwave
Veggies cooked in the microwave...
  • Benefits:
    • Little or no nutrient loss
    • Good flavor and texture
  • Note:
    • Remember to pierce vegetables cooked in their skins
    • Ex. piercing a potato with a fork
qualities of cooked vegetables
Qualities of cooked vegetables...
  • Properly cooked veggies
    • Colorful
    • Flavorful
    • Tender-crisp texture
  • Overcooked or improperly cooked veggies
    • May suffer undesirable changes in color, texture, & flavor
    • They may lose many of their nutrients
principles of vegetable cookery
Principles of vegetable cookery...
  • Goal is to protect the vegetable’s:
    • Color
    • Texture
    • Flavor
    • Nutrition
  • Length of cooking time
    • Cook veggies ONLY until fork tender
      • Dulls the color
      • Gives an unpleasant flavor
      • Causes the veggies to become mushy
pop quiz
Pop Quiz:
  • Question:
    • What is the main nutrient missing in vegetables?
  • Answer:
    • FAT
  • Which is easier for the body to digest?
    • a. Raw vegetables
    • b. Cooked vegetables
  • Answer:
    • b. Cooked vegetables