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VEGETABLES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Mercy
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VEGETABLES

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  1. VEGETABLES Chapter 19

  2. 3 ways to classify vegetables... • 1. How do they grow? • 2. What’s their flavor? • 3. What color are they?

  3. Botanical Names for Vegetables - Parts of plant from which they come. • Tubers – • potatoes • Bulbs – • chives, onions, garlic

  4. Roots – • beets, turnips, carrot, radish • Stem – • asparagus, celery, mushroom

  5. Leaves – • brussel sprouts, cabbage, greens, lettuce, spinach. • Seeds – • beans, peas, corn

  6. Flowers – • artichoke, cauliflower, broccoli • Fruit – • cucumber, eggplant, tomato, peppers, squash

  7. What’s their flavor? • Very Strong-flavored • Onions • Leeks • Garlic

  8. Strong-flavored • Brussels Sprouts

  9. Broccoli

  10. Turnips

  11. Cauliflower

  12. Cabbage

  13. Mild-flavored • Spinach

  14. Celery

  15. Beets

  16. Peas

  17. Corn

  18. Squash

  19. Green beans

  20. Potatoes

  21. Carrots

  22. Green Peas Green beans Asparagus Celery Broccoli Spinach Red Beets Red cabbage Red peppers Yellow/Orange Carrots Wax beans Corn Squash Sweet potatoes White Onions Potatoes Cauliflower Leeks What color are they?

  23. Types of vegetables... • Starchy • Includes: • Potatoes • Sweet potatoes • Corn • Legumes (dry beans)

  24. Veggies with a high water content • Includes: • Tomatoes • Lettuce • Celery

  25. Vitamin A Function: Promotes normal growth of bones & teeth Helps maintain healthy skin tissue & night vision Vegetable sources: Leafy green & deep-yellow vegetables Broccoli, spinach, carrots, & squash Nutrients in vegetables...

  26. Vitamin C • Function: • Helps body form & maintain collagen • Helps body repair itself & fight infections • Vegetable sources: • Leafy greens • Broccoli, green peppers, tomatoes, & cabbage

  27. Nutrients in vegetables... • B Vitamins • Functions: • Prevents beriberi • Helps body use carbohydrates • Helps body break down proteins • Vegetable Sources: • Seed vegetables (dry beans) • Lima beans & peas

  28. Minerals • Functions: • Body needs 21 minerals to maintain good health • Needed to build bones, soft tissue, & other compounds • Vegetable sources: • Spinach (high in iron) • Kale (high in calcium)

  29. Nutrients in vegetables... • Chlorophyll • Substance found in plants that makes them green • Carbohydrates • Sugar, starch, & cellulose • Supplies the body with energy • Potatoes are high in carbohydrates

  30. Fresh Desirable qualities Crisp Bright Color Firm Absence of decay Storage Store in fridge Eat in 2-3 days Forms of Vegetables: Selection & Storage...

  31. Canned • Advantages • Precooked • Convenient • Disadvantages • Higher in sodium • Possibly mushy texture • Storage • Store at room temperature • Use by expiration date, if given

  32. Frozen • Benefits • Partially prepared • No need to thaw before cooking • No sodium added • Retain the appearance & flavor fresh-picked veggies • Usually cost less than fresh • Available “out of season” • Storage • Keep frozen • Do not refreeze if thawed

  33. Dried • Most common dried veggies are legumes • (dry beans) • Benefit • Long shelf life • Disadvantage • Must soak dry beans before cooking • Storage • Store in a cool dry place

  34. Prepare vegetables with care... • Cook for the shortest time possible • Heat destroys some vitamins • Use as little water as possible • Some vitamins dissolve in the cooking water • Pare or cut just before cooking • Air and light destroy some vitamins • Prepare the largest pieces possible • To expose the smallest surface area to all of the above • Serve or save cooking liquid • Use it in soups, sauces, gravies, & stews • Don’t throw away the nutrients in the cooking water

  35. Changes in veggies during cooking... • The cellulose (fiber) becomes softened by the heat & moisture of cooking • The starch absorbs water, swells, and becomes easier to digest • Flavors & colors undergo changes • Some of the nutrients may be lost

  36. Methods of vegetable cookery... • Boiling • In a small amount of water in a covered pan

  37. Baking • Bake veggies in their own skins after washing them thoroughly

  38. French frying • Fry veggies after dipping in batter or crumbs • Fry them in hot oil deep enough to cover the veggies

  39. Stir frying Stir fry veggies in 1-2 Tbsp. of fat in a skillet, pan, or wok

  40. Broiling or Grilling • Brush veggies with fat or oil • Broil over or under direct heat

  41. Steaming • Steam mild-flavored veggies in a steamer over rapidly boiling water • Microwave can also be used to steam veggies

  42. Veggies cooked in the microwave... • Benefits: • Little or no nutrient loss • Good flavor and texture • Note: • Remember to pierce vegetables cooked in their skins • Ex. piercing a potato with a fork

  43. Qualities of cooked vegetables... • Properly cooked veggies • Colorful • Flavorful • Tender-crisp texture • Overcooked or improperly cooked veggies • May suffer undesirable changes in color, texture, & flavor • They may lose many of their nutrients

  44. Principles of vegetable cookery... • Goal is to protect the vegetable’s: • Color • Texture • Flavor • Nutrition • Length of cooking time • Cook veggies ONLY until fork tender • OVER COOKING • Dulls the color • Gives an unpleasant flavor • Causes the veggies to become mushy

  45. Pop Quiz: • Question: • What is the main nutrient missing in vegetables? • Answer: • FAT • Which is easier for the body to digest? • a. Raw vegetables • b. Cooked vegetables • Answer: • b. Cooked vegetables