VEGETABLES Chapter 19
3 ways to classify vegetables... • 1. How do they grow? • 2. What’s their flavor? • 3. What color are they?
Botanical Names for Vegetables - Parts of plant from which they come. • Tubers – • potatoes • Bulbs – • chives, onions, garlic
Roots – • beets, turnips, carrot, radish • Stem – • asparagus, celery, mushroom
Leaves – • brussel sprouts, cabbage, greens, lettuce, spinach. • Seeds – • beans, peas, corn
Flowers – • artichoke, cauliflower, broccoli • Fruit – • cucumber, eggplant, tomato, peppers, squash
What’s their flavor? • Very Strong-flavored • Onions • Leeks • Garlic
Strong-flavored • Brussels Sprouts
Mild-flavored • Spinach
Green Peas Green beans Asparagus Celery Broccoli Spinach Red Beets Red cabbage Red peppers Yellow/Orange Carrots Wax beans Corn Squash Sweet potatoes White Onions Potatoes Cauliflower Leeks What color are they?
Types of vegetables... • Starchy • Includes: • Potatoes • Sweet potatoes • Corn • Legumes (dry beans)
Veggies with a high water content • Includes: • Tomatoes • Lettuce • Celery
Vitamin A Function: Promotes normal growth of bones & teeth Helps maintain healthy skin tissue & night vision Vegetable sources: Leafy green & deep-yellow vegetables Broccoli, spinach, carrots, & squash Nutrients in vegetables...
Vitamin C • Function: • Helps body form & maintain collagen • Helps body repair itself & fight infections • Vegetable sources: • Leafy greens • Broccoli, green peppers, tomatoes, & cabbage
Nutrients in vegetables... • B Vitamins • Functions: • Prevents beriberi • Helps body use carbohydrates • Helps body break down proteins • Vegetable Sources: • Seed vegetables (dry beans) • Lima beans & peas
Minerals • Functions: • Body needs 21 minerals to maintain good health • Needed to build bones, soft tissue, & other compounds • Vegetable sources: • Spinach (high in iron) • Kale (high in calcium)
Nutrients in vegetables... • Chlorophyll • Substance found in plants that makes them green • Carbohydrates • Sugar, starch, & cellulose • Supplies the body with energy • Potatoes are high in carbohydrates
Fresh Desirable qualities Crisp Bright Color Firm Absence of decay Storage Store in fridge Eat in 2-3 days Forms of Vegetables: Selection & Storage...
Canned • Advantages • Precooked • Convenient • Disadvantages • Higher in sodium • Possibly mushy texture • Storage • Store at room temperature • Use by expiration date, if given
Frozen • Benefits • Partially prepared • No need to thaw before cooking • No sodium added • Retain the appearance & flavor fresh-picked veggies • Usually cost less than fresh • Available “out of season” • Storage • Keep frozen • Do not refreeze if thawed
Dried • Most common dried veggies are legumes • (dry beans) • Benefit • Long shelf life • Disadvantage • Must soak dry beans before cooking • Storage • Store in a cool dry place
Prepare vegetables with care... • Cook for the shortest time possible • Heat destroys some vitamins • Use as little water as possible • Some vitamins dissolve in the cooking water • Pare or cut just before cooking • Air and light destroy some vitamins • Prepare the largest pieces possible • To expose the smallest surface area to all of the above • Serve or save cooking liquid • Use it in soups, sauces, gravies, & stews • Don’t throw away the nutrients in the cooking water
Changes in veggies during cooking... • The cellulose (fiber) becomes softened by the heat & moisture of cooking • The starch absorbs water, swells, and becomes easier to digest • Flavors & colors undergo changes • Some of the nutrients may be lost
Methods of vegetable cookery... • Boiling • In a small amount of water in a covered pan
Baking • Bake veggies in their own skins after washing them thoroughly
French frying • Fry veggies after dipping in batter or crumbs • Fry them in hot oil deep enough to cover the veggies
Stir frying Stir fry veggies in 1-2 Tbsp. of fat in a skillet, pan, or wok
Broiling or Grilling • Brush veggies with fat or oil • Broil over or under direct heat
Steaming • Steam mild-flavored veggies in a steamer over rapidly boiling water • Microwave can also be used to steam veggies
Veggies cooked in the microwave... • Benefits: • Little or no nutrient loss • Good flavor and texture • Note: • Remember to pierce vegetables cooked in their skins • Ex. piercing a potato with a fork
Qualities of cooked vegetables... • Properly cooked veggies • Colorful • Flavorful • Tender-crisp texture • Overcooked or improperly cooked veggies • May suffer undesirable changes in color, texture, & flavor • They may lose many of their nutrients
Principles of vegetable cookery... • Goal is to protect the vegetable’s: • Color • Texture • Flavor • Nutrition • Length of cooking time • Cook veggies ONLY until fork tender • OVER COOKING • Dulls the color • Gives an unpleasant flavor • Causes the veggies to become mushy
Pop Quiz: • Question: • What is the main nutrient missing in vegetables? • Answer: • FAT • Which is easier for the body to digest? • a. Raw vegetables • b. Cooked vegetables • Answer: • b. Cooked vegetables