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2 nd 9WKS Benchmark Review

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  1. 2nd 9WKS Benchmark Review

  2. How did the French and Indian War lead to the American Revolutionary War? • The Tax was put on the colonist to help the King pay for the French and Indian War. The Taxes/Acts upset the Colonist and lead them into the American Revolution.

  3. How did the French and Indian War affect GA’s growth and development? • GA did not participate in war BUT GA’s western boundary moved to Mississippi River.

  4. What was the Proclamation of 1763. • A line set by Great Britain where it limited settlers to move/settle West.

  5. What were the elements of the Intolerable Acts? • Closed Boston, Mass. port until tea was paid for 2. Not allowing people of Mass. to elect their own officials or hold town meetings. 3. Requiring all people in all the colonies to feed and house British soldiers- called Quartering Act 4. Moved all British trials to England

  6. Why did many Georgians remain loyal to Great Britain? • GA was the youngest colony and still depended on the King’s money to support them.

  7. Who were the Georgia’s signers of the Declaration of Independence? • Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall and George Walton

  8. Define Loyalist? • Colonist that were loyal to the King of England

  9. Define Patriot? • Colonists that were against the King of England

  10. What did Elijah Clarke do during the Revolution? • A rebel militia (colonists against the King) group led by Colonel Elijah Clarke defeated a force of more than 800 British troops at the Battle of Kettle Creek, about 8 miles from Washington, GA.

  11. What did Austin Dabney do during the Revolution? • Dabney came to GA with Richard Aycock and Aycock wouldn’t fight in war so he had Dabney fight in his place. Dabney was a good soldier and was wounded in action. A family named Harris cared for him while his wounds healed. GA Gov. praised Dabney as a patriot and he received a valuable piece of land in Madison Co. When he moved there, he took the Harris family with him.

  12. What did Nancy Hart do during the Revolution? • Several British soldiers came to her house and demanded to be fed and began bragging about killing Colonel Dooley (Rebel). • -Nancy had her child go in the woods and sound the alarm and she got the soldiers’ guns. They realized it and came after her. • -She shot one of the soldiers and held the rest for help to arrived. The soldiers were put to trial and hung for the murder of Col. Dooley. • Hart County is named after Nancy Hart and the county seat is Hartwell.

  13. What was important about the Battle of Kettle Creek? • Was minor when compared to those fought in other parts of the country. It was, however, important to GA. The militia was able to take badly needed weapons and horses from the British soldiers and the spirits of the GA militia were lifted by their victory.

  14. When was the Siege of Savannah? • In Dec. 1778- British attacked and took control of Savannah.

  15. What was the name of the site at which General Cornwallis surrended? • Yorktown, VA

  16. What was the main weakness of the GA Constitution in 1777? Constitution provided a unicameral (one house) legislature. This single body had very broad powers, including the ability to make appointments for the judicial branch (enforces the law) and the executive branch ( the governor).

  17. Why was the national government given few powers in the AOC? Which is what the authors wanted. The authors didn’t want one level of Government to have the most power.

  18. Who selected the Governor under the Constitution of 1777? • The Governor was to be selected by the legislature rather than voted on by the people.

  19. What was the name of the America’s 1st Constitution? • Articles of Confederation

  20. Why was the National Gov’t given few powers in the Articles of Confederation? • The founding fathers wanted to make sure that their new Gov’t would be very different from the Gov’t of Great Britain.

  21. What meeting was held in order to revise the Articles of Confederation? • 1st Constitutional Convention- the summer of 1787 (55 delegates) met at Independence Hall in Philadelphia to revise the AOC.

  22. Who represented GA at the Constitutional Convention? • William Pierce, William Few, Abraham Baldwin, and William Houstoun as its delegates to the Const. Convention to be held in Philadelphia.

  23. The Constitutional Convention created a Bicameral national legislature. How many houses does it have? • 2 Houses- Bi means 2

  24. The University of GA is the nation’s 1st land grant university. What is a land grant university? • UGA was chartered as a land grant school (a school for which the federal gov’t donated the land).

  25. What 2 cities were Ga’s capital during the late 1700s? Augusta and Louisville

  26. Why did GA’s capital city keep being moved? It moved because people started moving inland from the coast.

  27. What were the 2 largest religious groups in GA in the late 1700’s? • Baptist and Methodist

  28. What was the purpose of the headright system? • Under this system, each WHITE MALE counted as a “head” of a family and had the “right” to receive up to 1,000 acres of Western land.

  29. What land was given away by the land lottery? • Western Land

  30. What was the name of the Scandal in which GA legislators were bribed to pass favorable legislation for land speculators? • Yazoo Land Fraud

  31. What became GA’s western boundary in 1802? • In 1802, GA ceded (gave up) its land west of the Chattahoochee River to the Federal Gov’t for $1.25 million, making the river GA’s western boundary.

  32. Explain the relationship between the cotton gin and the growth of slavery? • The Cotton Gin separated the cotton from the seed allowing more time to plant more cotton. More cotton planted took more work by slaves. The owners bought more slaves to work in the fields planting and harvesting the cotton.

  33. What city was developed to connect GA’s rail lines to the rail lines in Chattanooga? • Western and Atlantic ran from Chattanooga, TN to a point on the southeastern bank of the Chattahoochee River in GA. • The point was called “Terminus” which means “end of the railroad”. Today it is known as Atlanta.

  34. How were items shipped long distances before railroads? • Freight was sent to market on riverboats, ferries, or wagon trains.

  35. What railroad companies were a predominant in the mid 1800’s? • Baltimore and Ohio Railroad- in the U.S. • Western and Atlantic- in GA.

  36. Who was Alexander McGillivray? • Tribes led by McGillivray burned houses, stole horses, and cattle, and killed or captured over 200 settlers. • Fighting between settlers and Creeks went on for several years. • 1790- President Washington called Chief McGillivray to New York. Washington and Chief exchanged presents and talked. McGillivray then signed the “Treaty of New York”- where Creeks gave up all their land east of the Oconee River. In return, U.S. Gov’t agreed to help the Creek start farms by giving them tools and animals. • Georgians were angry about treaty because it “appeared” to them that the Federal Gov’t had taken the side of the Creek. Neither Creeks or Georgians paid attention to treaty

  37. Who was William McIntosh? • The U.S. paid McIntosh and a large group of Lower Creek chiefs $2,000,000. to cede (give) the last Creek lands in GA to the Fed. Gov’t. The Gov’t gave the use of the land to GA. -Groups of Creek were mad at McIntosh and thought he needed to be punished. At daybreak, the Creek set fire to McIntosh’s home. They allowed the women and children to leave before they exchanged gunfire with the Chief they had come to kill. -Smoke and his wounds stopped McIntosh from fighting. The Creeks dragged his from the house and stabbed him in the chest. -McIntosh’s scalp was taken as a warning to others who might want to give Creek land to white men.

  38. Who was Sequoyah? • Cherokee Indian who created a “Syllabary”- a group of symbols that stand for whole syllables- NOT letters. • The Syllabary was the 1st written Native American language.

  39. Who was John Ross? • Chief John Ross made several trips to Washington to ask Congress for help. He wanted the Cherokee protected and the terms of past treaties honored. No help was given. Time was running out for Cherokee Nation.

  40. Where was America’s first gold rush? • 1829, gold has been discovered in Dahlonega, GA, creating the country’s first gold rush.

  41. What was the significance of Worchester vs. GA? • To get rid of missionaries, the GA legislature passed a law on Dec. 22, 1830, that said all white person could not live on Cherokee land without taking an oath of allegiance to the Gov. • 11 people including Samuel Worchester, postmaster at the Cherokee Capital in New Echota, refused to sign the oath. He went to jail on March 1831. • They were announced guilty at trial and sentenced to 4 yrs in jail. • Gov. George Gilmer agreed to pardon (let go) anyone who would take an oath of loyalty to the state, and all but 2 agreed. • Missionaries Worchester and Butler took their cases to the U.S. Supreme Ct. Justice John Marshall heard the case and ruled that the decision of the lower court could NOT stand becuse Cherokee Territory was not subject to state law. Justice John Marshall ordered Butler and Worchester to be free but Judge Clayton refused. GA’s newly elected Gov, Wilson Lumpkin, would not take a stand against the judge. Even the president refused to honor the Supreme Ct. order. -Jan 9, 1833- Worchester and Butler gave up and told Gov. Lumpkin that they would abandon litigation (legal court action). The Gov pardoned them and then said that the 2 missionaries must leave GA and never return

  42. Describe Andrew Jackson’s attitude toward Indians, including groups of Indians he used in the War of 1812 and how he treated the Cherokee? • Jackson was friendly to the Cherokee but he was wise enough to know politically that the white voters wanted the Indians removed from their lands.

  43. What was the Trail of Tears? A 700-800 mile walk to Indian Territory. Winter winds, snow, and too little food led to the deaths of thousands of Cherokee. The exact number of how many were moved is not known, but about 4000 of this group died while they were in prison before they left or during the march west. To this day, the move is sadly remembered as the Trail of Tears.

  44. Explain the significance of the Indian Removal Act of 1830. • The Indian Removal Act called for all the Native Americans to be moved to the western lands so the settlers could have their land to expand the country.

  45. Where was the boundary line for slavery, according to the Missouri Compromise? • Missouri Compromise of 1820 did not permit slavery NORTH of Missouri’s southern boundary.

  46. What was the Kansas-Nebraska Act? • Kansas-Nebraska Act passed which created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and contained a clause on Popular Sovereignty. • Popular Sovereignty- when a territory asked for statehood (to become a state), the people of that territory could VOTE to decide if they wanted to be a free or slave state.

  47. Describe the major components of the Compromise of 1850? 1850- there were 15 slave states and 15 free states. Compromise of 1850- passed through Congress offering something for both the N & S. North- (3 positive points) • California came into the Union as a free state • Slave traded ended in the District of Columbia • Texas gave up its idea of annexing New Mexico, making the territory a part of a slave state. South ( 3 positive things) • New Mexico and Utah would determine whether they wanted to be slave or free. • People of the District of Columbia could keep the slaves they already had • Congress would pass a law stating that slaves who ran away to free states would be returned to their owners.

  48. What was the Underground Railroad? • A secret cooperative network that aided fugitive slaves in reaching sanctuary in the free states or in Canada in the years before the abolition of slavery in the United States.

  49. What role did Alexander Stephens play in the Gov’t of the Confederate States of America? • Feb 4, 1861- States that left the Union met in Montgomery AL and formed themselves the “Confederate States of America” • Jefferson Davis of Miss was elected President of the Confederate States of America. • Alexander Stephenswas Vice-president-From GA

  50. What is the significance of the Dred Scott Case? • Dred Scott filed a law suit to the Supreme Court says that he was free since he lived with his master in a free state for a short time. The Supreme Court said that he couldn’t sue because he wasn’t a citizen, he was property. This further divided the North and South. North thought he should be free- South didn’t think he should be free.