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Spoken English

Spoken English

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Spoken English

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  1. Spoken English Lesson 1 a Language Training

  2. When we speak or write we use words. A group of words that makes complete sense is called a Sentence

  3. Kinds of Sentences Sentences are of four kinds: • Those which make statements or assertions; as, • Mallika is sitting on the chair • Those which ask questions; as • What is your name? • Those which express commands, requests, or entreaties; as, • Be attentive. • Have mercy on us. • Those which express strong feelings; as, • How cold the night is! • How green was my valley! • What a disgrace!

  4. A sentence that makes a statement or assertion is called a Declarative or Assertive sentence. Also known as an Affirmative sentence • A sentence that asks a question is called an Interrogative sentence. • A sentence that expresses a command or an entreaty is called an Imperative sentence. • A sentence that expresses a strong feeling is called an Exclamatory sentence.

  5. Subject and Predicate When we make a sentence: • We name some person or thing and • Say something about that person or thing. Hence every sentence has two parts: • The part which names the person or thing we are speaking about. This is called the Subject of the sentence. • The part which tells something about the Subject. This is called the Predicate of the sentence.

  6. Exercise 1Identify the Subject and the Predicate • Stone walls do not a prison make. • The singing of the birds delights us. • He has a good memory. • Borrowed garments never fit well. • I shot an arrow into the air. • A barking sound the shepherd hears. • On the top of the hill lives a hermit. • Nature is the best physician. • Sweet are the uses of adversity. • The early bird catches the worm.

  7. Parts of Speech Words are divided into different classes, called Parts of Speech, according to their function in a sentence. There are eight parts of speech: • Noun • Adjective • Pronoun • Verb • Adverb • Preposition • Conjunction • Interjection

  8. Noun A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place, or thing. • Newton was a greatphysicist • Delhi is the capital of India • The sun shines bright. • His courage won him honor

  9. Adjective An Adjective is a word used to add something to the meaning of a noun. It qualifies a noun. • He is a kind man. • There are twelve months in a year

  10. Pronoun • A Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. • Rita couldn’t come as she is out of station • Keep the book where it was

  11. Verb A Verb is a word used lo express an action or state. • The child ran to his mother • Puri is by the sea • Water and air are essential for life

  12. Adverb An Adverb is a word used to add something to the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. • He walked to the dais quickly • This dress is very pretty • She pronounced the word quitecorrectly

  13. Preposition A Preposition is a word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how the person or thing denoted by the noun or pronoun stands in relation to something else. • There is a cow in the garden • The girl is fond of music • A cute little girl is sitting under a tree

  14. A Conjunction is a word used to join words or sentences. • Sonam and Dipak are friends • You and I will go together • She ran fast but could not catch the thief

  15. Interjection An Interjection is a word which expresses some sudden feeling. • Hurrah! We have won the game • Alas! She is dead

  16. Kinds of Noun • Proper Noun • Arunachalam • Bhopal • Common Noun • Man • City Common Nouns include what are called Collective Nouns and Abstract Nouns

  17. Kinds of Noun… • Collective Noun • Family • Nation • Bunch • Abstract Noun • Laughter (action) • Honesty (quality) • Youth (state) The names of the Arts and the Sciences (e.g., grammar, music, chemistry, etc.) are also Abstract Nouns Abstract Nouns are formed from adjectives, verbs and common nouns

  18. Kinds of Noun… • Another classification of nouns is based on whether they are countable or uncountable. • Countable Nouns • Countable nouns (or countables) are the names of objects, people, etc. that we can count, e.g., book, pen, apple, sister, doctor, horse. • Uncountable Nouns • Uncountable nouns (or uncountables) are the names of things which we cannot count, e.g., milk, oil, sugar, honesty. Countable nouns have plural forms while uncountable nouns do not. For example, we say “books” but we cannot say “milks”.

  19. The Noun: Gender In Modern English the Gender of a noun is entirely a matter of sex or the absence of sex. It has nothing to do with the form of a noun • Masculine Gender- Tiger • Feminine Gender - Tigress • Common Gender - Baby • Neuter Gender – Pen

  20. The Noun - Number • A Noun that denotes one person or thing, is said to be in the Singular Number. • Boy, girl, box, child, mango, photo, mouse. • A Noun that denotes more than one person or thing, is said to be in the Plural Number. • Boys, girls, boxes, children, mangoes, photos, mice.

  21. The Noun - Case • When a noun (or pronoun) is used as the subject of a verb, it is said to be in the Nominative Case The boy caught the ball • When a noun (or pronoun) is used as the Object of a verb, it is said to be in the Objective (or Accusative) Case. The boy caught the ball

  22. The Noun – Case… • The noun or pronoun that denotes ownership /authorship/ origin/ kind is said to be in the possessive (or Genitive) Case Miriam’s book Jack Trout’s essay Mother’s love Children’s school

  23. The Noun in Apposition • When one noun follows another to describe it, the noun which follows is said to be in apposition to the noun which comes before it. Bala Saraswati, the great dancer, was from a Devdasi family I met your mother, the renowned teacher Have you seen Ganesh Pyne, the painter’s works?

  24. Exercises