PM2.5 Implementation ProgramNew Jersey Perspective Sandra Krietzman, Bureau Chief New Jersey Dept. of Environmental Protection Bureau of Air Quality Planning firstname.lastname@example.org
Outline • Characterization of the PM2.5 Problem in New Jersey • Identification of Strategies • NJ Workshop • Regional • Discussion of Strategies • Conclusions
Nonattainment areas for 8-hour ozone pollution only Nonattainment areas for fine particle pollution only . Nonattainment areas for both 8-hour ozone and fine particle pollution Ozone and PM Attainment forecast with CAIR and with Other Clean Air Programs - 2010 Ozone and Fine Particle Nonattainment Areas (April 2005) Projected Nonattainment Areas in 2010 after Reductions from CAIR and Existing Clean Air Act Programs 104 ozone nonattainment areas (408counties) 36 PM2.5 nonattainment areas with 195 counties 14 ozone nonattainment areas 19 PM2.5 nonattainment areas Projections concerning future levels of air pollution in specific geographic locations were estimated using the best scientific models available. They are estimations, however, and should be characterized as such in any description. Actual results may vary significantly if any of the factors that influence air quality differ from the assumed values used in the projections shown here.
2010 PM2.5 2015 PM2.5 99-03 Average PM2.5 Concentration Concentration Concentration (after CAIR) (after CAIR) City (ug/m3) (ug/m3) (ug/m3) Philadelphia 16.55 14.98 14.53 New York 17.56 14.95 14.33 Results of CAIR modeling Some of the larger metropolitan areas in the Northeast are predicted to have PM2.5 levels in 2010 that are just below the standard. Source: USEPAmodeling
Nitrate Combustion 13% Related (Carbonaceous Organic + Elemental Carbon) Sulfate 40% 43% Soil 4% Composition of Fine Particles Elizabeth, N.J. Formed from NOx Emitted From Regional and Diesels - Highway Local Sources, Highway Vehicles and Off-Road Diesels - Off Road Diesel Mobile Sources Aircraft & Railway Gasoline Combustion Incineration, Open Burning Residential Wood Burning Structural Fires Utility/Commercial Fuel Combustion PM formed from Organic Gases Wind Erosion, Agricultural Tilling, Formed From SO2 Transported from Paved and Unpaved Roads and Regional and Local Sources; Oil and Construction Activities Coal-fired Utility and Commercial/ Institutional Boilers, Small Combustion Sources
2002 MANE-VU Region PM2.5 Emission Inventory Top 10 Note: Not Adjusted for Fugitive Dust
NJ OutreachReducing Air Pollution Together • June 29, 2005 - First Workshop • Six workgroups formed • Diesel initiatives • Gasoline Cars and Trucks • Homes and Restaurants • Non-Automobile Gasoline Engines • Stationary Combustion Sources • Volatile Organic Compounds
Reducing Air Pollution Together (Continued) • Summer of 2005 • Workgroups meet - brainstorming sessions • Fall/Winter 2005 • Workgroups submit reports to NJDEP • Air workshop - November 14, 2005 • ~ 250 potential control measures • May 17, 2006 – Second Workshop • 60 white papers • www.nj.gov/dep/airworkgroups/docs/wp_summary_table_web_2007.xls
Regional Strategies OTC • Reasonable Measures Workgroup • Control Strategy Workgroup • HEDD Regional Effort • MARAMA • Refineries
Areas of Control Strategies under Consideration • Electric Generating Units • Heating Oil and Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers • Residential Wood Combustion • Diesel • Fugitive Emissions - BMP
EGUs – Oil and Gas • HEDD (High Energy Demand Day) • Mostly turbines/some oil boilers • NOx reductions • Short term 5/1/09 • Long term 5/1/15 • Sulfur in Oil
EGUs – Coal • Multipollutant Performance Standards • SO2/NOx/PM2.5 – new rule • Hg – existing rule • CAIR NOx allocations • Output-based • Rule being adopted • Greater CAIR retirement ratios • Under consideration
Low Sulfur Oil + ICI Boiler Strategy • Distillate • 500 ppm by 2012 (2010 if possible) • 15 ppm by 2016 (2015 if possible) • #4 Residual • 0.5% by 2012 • #6 Residual • 0.3 to 0.5% by 2012
Wood Combustion • PM and VOC emissions contribute to Regional Haze • Not as great an impact as sulfate • More local impacts • Nuisance and health reasons in addition to regional haze for addressing this category
Wood Combustion - Control Options • Public outreach and education programs • Woodstove changeout programs to promote replacement of old equipment with cleaner burning equipment • State requirements for new sources, stricter than federal NSPS • State requirements for outdoor wood boilers/hydronic heaters • Existing “no visible emission” requirement being enforced.
Diesel Strategies • Diesel Risk Reduction Law • Signed September 2005 • Focuses on diesel particulate emissions • Requires and funds crankcase and tailpipe retrofits on 40,000 diesel vehicles (15% of engines) • Strengthens anti-idling enforcement • Rule adoption expected this month
Regulated Vehicles • School Buses • Solid Waste Vehicles • Publicly owned or in a contract w/public entity • Public & Private Commercial Buses • Publicly-owned on-road vehicles • Publicly-owned off-road equipment
School Buses • NJDEP adopt regulations Summer 07 • Install closed crankcase technology Summer 09 • Study to determine if tailpipe controls also necessary – Summer 07 • If so, additional rules prioritized.
Idling • Enforce 3 minute idling limit for diesel powered vehicles. • Extensive outreach and education campaign. • Adopt rule amendments. • Provide alternatives such as truck stop electrification. • Encourage school districts, bus companies and parents to sign “No Idling pledge.”
Idling - continued • Local police can enforce • Bus owner, school district and driver liable. • Phase out exemption for sleeper berths in 2010. • Tighten language for other exceptions.
Diesel Inspection and Maintenance • Inspection and maintenance program since 1998 for diesel vehicles. • NJDEP limits amount of visible emissions or “smoke.” • Reducing allowable smoke – proposal in July 2007. • Diesel vehicles greater than 18,000 pounds must go to annual emissions inspection at Diesel Emissions Inspection Center. • State police also pull over vehicles on highways to check emissions (and safety issues).
Summary of Strategies • Point sources: EGU Performance strategies • Point and area sources: Fuel strategies • Area sources: Wood combustion • Onroad and nonroad sources: Diesel idling reductions, Diesel idling law, I/M program