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Oxygen Deficiency Iyad Sawalha, Air Products. Dubai | 5 December 2013. OXYGEN DEFICIENCY. It’s a phenomenon INSIDIOUS ( causing harm in a way that is gradual or not easily noticed ) SUDDEN WITHOUT WARNING. 3 DAYS WITHOUT DRINK. 2 BREATHS WITHOUT OXYGEN. 3 MINUTES WITHOUT BREATHING.

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oxygen deficiency

OXYGEN DEFICIENCY

  • It’s a phenomenon
  • INSIDIOUS (causing harm in a way that is gradual or not easily noticed)
  • SUDDEN
  • WITHOUT WARNING
slide3

3 DAYS WITHOUT DRINK

2 BREATHS WITHOUT OXYGEN

3 MINUTES WITHOUT BREATHING

ENDANGER YOUR LIFE

3 WEEKS WITHOUT FOOD

in case of total oxygen deficiency the blood suddenly loses its oxygen
IN CASE OF TOTAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY the blood suddenly loses its oxygen

WITH 0% OXYGEN, THE SECOND BREATH WILL CAUSE

LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS WITHOUT WARNING

WITHIN A FEW MINUTES,

BRAIN DAMAGE MAY BE IRREVERSIBLE

IN CASE OF PROGRESSIVE OXYGEN DEFICIENCY O2 content is decreasing in blood

Progressive Asphyxiation O2 content less than 18%

These symptoms are similar to those of general malaise and are not recognized as asphyxiation by the victim (inert gases are odorless, colorless, tasteless)

BUT

in all cases the victim never realises the risk
In all cases:THE VICTIM NEVER REALISES THE RISK

BUT

If the Oxygen atmosphere deficiency is only between 10 and 18%:

THE VICTIM FEELS ONLY GENERAL MALAISE AND DOES NOT RELATE THIS TO THE ONSET OF ASPHYXIATION

With less than 6% of oxygen :

Immediate loss of consciousness

hazardous atmospheres oxygen deficient
Hazardous Atmospheres: Oxygen Deficient

19.5 % Minimum acceptable O2 level

15-19% Decreased ability to work strenuously; Impair coordination

12-14% Respiration increases; Poor judgment

10-12% Respiration increases; Lips blue.

8-10% Mental failure; Fainting; Nausea; Unconsciousness; Vomiting

6-8% 8 minutes – fatal; 6 minutes - 50% fatal; 4-5 minutes - possible recovery

4-6% Coma in 40 seconds; Death

how can you identify a confined space

CONFINED SPACES

How can you identify a confined space ?

usually NO second chances !

About a million employees enter confined spaces every day. In most cases, those workers complete their task without incident, but despite the many precautions in place, 70 workers per year never make it back out alive.

A confined space is a space which has any of the following characteristics :

Limited opening for entry and exit

Unfavorable natural ventilation

Not designed for continuous worker occupancy

you must
You must :
  • Be aware of the risk
  • Always implement a safe system of work before allowing people to enter into a confined space
  • Make operators aware of the risk
  • Implement a procedure to authorize the access
  • Warn people of the danger, place signs at entrances to areas where O2 deficiency may arise
  • Develop and apply safety measures
  • Develop and apply appropriate safety measures

AND

  • Always monitor the oxygen content
rescue
RESCUE

Remember:

an unplanned rescue will probably be your last

THINK !

KEY WORD :

  • When you design a gas installation
  • When you install and commissiona gas installation
  • When you work on a gas installation
  • Before acting in an emergency
  • Before reacting to any accident or incident

Training… Established Emergency Response Procedures… Appropriate equipment and techniques

Rescue should be well planned… Frequent Drills

preventive measures
Preventive measures

What to do

  • Explain Asphyxiation dangers, create and enforce a procedure to enter:WORK PERMIT
  • Prepare for emergencies with appropriate equipment
  • TRAIN PEOPLE to verify the equipment & procedures before issuing the permit
  • Always check where gas release will go
  • VERIFY periodically the extraction system efficiency
  • Install, if necessary, an DETECTOR with an alarm system
  • VENT rooms where liquid gases are utilized or stored
before entering assess risks consequences to yourself and other
Before entering: Assess risks / consequences to yourself and other
  • Pipe vents to a safe Area
  • Look for leaks
  • Do not rely on a closed valve which may leak
  • Always use physical isolation methods, e.g. blind flanges
  • Any noise indicating a possible leak
  • Abnormal fluid flow

Abnormal circumstances, consider:

Before an accident think about:

DON’T RUSH… STOP & THINK !

conclusion
CONCLUSION

CONSIDER THE ASPHYXIATION RISK

LEAVE THE DANGER AREA

IMPLEMENT THE APPROPRIATE PROCEDURES

  • If you hear a gas leak
  • If you see cold vapors
  • If you have symptoms of general malaise
  • If a colleague lies unconscious