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training package tp 01 04 oxygen deficiency

Training PackageTP 01/04Oxygen Deficiency

Disclaimer

All publications of AIGA or bearing AIGA’s name contain information, including Codes of Practice, safety procedures and other technical information that were obtained from sources believed by AIGA to be reliable and/ or based on technical information and experience currently available from members of AIGA and others at the date of the publication. As such, we do not make any representation or warranty nor accept any liability as to the accuracy, completeness or correctness of the information contained in these publications.

While AIGA recommends that its members refer to or use its publications, such reference to or use thereof by its members or third parties is purely voluntary and not binding.

AIGA or its members make no guarantee of the results and assume no liability or responsibility in connection with the reference to or use of information or suggestions contained in AIGA’s publications.

AIGA has no control whatsoever as regards, performance or non performance, misinterpretation, proper or improper use of any information or suggestions contained in AIGA’s publications by any person or entity (including AIGA members) and AIGA expressly disclaims any liability in connection thereto.

AIGA’s publications are subject to periodic review and users are cautioned to obtain the latest edition.

 Reproduced with permission from European Industrial Gases Association. All rights reserved.

Asia Industrial Gases Association

3 HarbourFront Place, #09-04 HarbourFront Tower 2, Singapore 099254

Internet: http//www.asiaiga.org

acknowledgement
This document is adopted from the European Industrial Gases Association document “Oxygen Deficiency”and acknowledgement and thanks are hereby given to EIGA for permission granted for the use of their documentAcknowledgement
slide3

OXYGEN DEFICIENCY

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

slide4

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

A SERIOUS HAZARD

INSIDIOUS

It's a phenomenon

SUDDEN

WITHOUT WARNING

slide5
3 WEEKS WITHOUT FOOD

2 BREATHS WITHOUT OXYGEN

ENDANGER YOUR LIFE

3 DAYS WITHOUT DRINK

3 MINUTES WITHOUT BREATHING

slide6
IN CASE OF TOTAL OXYGEN DEFICIENCY

the blood suddenly loses its oxygen

NORMAL CONDITION

SUDDEN O2 DEFICIENCY

ATMOSPHERE

BLOOD

ATMOSPHERE

WITHOUT O2

BLOOD

O2

O2

CO2

CO2

O2 content

in blood

O2 content

in blood

WITH 0% OXYGEN, THE SECOND BREATH WILL CAUSE

LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS WITHOUT WARNING

WITHIN A FEW MINUTES,

BRAIN DAMAGE MAY BE IRREVERSIBLE

slide7
IN CASE OF PROGRESSIVE OXYGEN DEFICIENCY

Oxygen content is decreasing in blood

Progressive asphyxiation

O2 content less than 18%

  • Vertigo
  • headache
  • speech difficulties
  • reduction and loss of consciousness
  • dulling of the mind
  • loss of muscle control

BUT

These symptoms are similar to those of general malaise and are not recognised as asphyxiation by the victim (inert gases are odourless, colourless, tasteless)

The victim tries to overcome this by himself

THE VICTIM DOES NOT CALL FOR HELP

OVER A CERTAIN THRESHOLD, THE VICTIM CAN'T REACT :

THE LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS IS SUDDEN

slide8
In all cases:

THE VICTIM NEVER REALISES THE RISK

With less than 6% of oxygen :

immediate loss of consciousness

BUT

  • If the Oxygen atmosphere deficiency is only between 10 and 18% :
        • THE VICTIM FEELS ONLY GENERAL MALAISE AND DOES NOT RELATE THIS
        • TO THE ONSET OF ASPHYXIATION
slide9

OXYGEN IS ESSENTIAL FOR :

HUMAN LIFE

and BRAIN PROCESSES

  • If the blood fails in bringing oxygen:
    • Cells don't operate anymore
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Irreversible consequences (paralysis, comatose state, ...)..... DEATH
slide10
BUT .... REMEMBER :

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

Asphyxiation

is a phenomenon ...

  • INSIDIOUS
  • SUDDEN
  • WITHOUT WARNING
slide11

THE

DANGER

OF

ASPHYXIATION

may arise

IN ALL THE CONFINED SPACES

slide12
How can you identifya confined space ?

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

    • A confined space is a space which has any of the following characteristics :
  • Limited opening for entry and exit
  • Unfavourable natural ventilation
  • Not designed for continuous worker occupancy
slide13

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

  • How can you identifya confined space ?
  • If you are required to construct or work in a :
  • Boiler, cupola, degreaser, furnace, pipeline, pit, pumping station, reaction or process vessel, septic tank, sewage digester, sewer, silo, storage tank, ship's hold, utility vault, vat, or similar type of enclosure ...
  • You are working in a confined space
slide14

Attention !

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

O2 deficient atmospheres can arisealso in normal working areas,when gases are stored or used

slide15

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

  • You must :

Be aware of the risk,

Always implement a safe system of work before allowing people to enter into a confined space

slide16

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

  • You must :

Make operators aware of the risk

Implement a procedure to authorise the access

Warn people of the danger, place signs at entrances to areas where O2 deficiency may arise

Develop and apply safety measures

slide17

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

  • You must also :

Develop and apply appropriate safety measures

AND

Always monitor the oxygen content

slide18

IN ALL CASES:

PLACE SIGNS

TO WARN

OF THE DANGER

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

TO ALERT THE OPERATORS

Inform about the risk

Train in the method to detect the danger

slide19

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

  • RESCUE

Rescuers must be trained in and follow established emergency procedures and use appropriate equipment and techniques Rescue should be well planned and drills should be conducted frequently on emergency procedures

Remember : an unplanned rescue will probably be your last

slide20

THINK !

KEY WORD :

When you design a gas installation

When you install and commission a gas installation

When you work on a gas installation

Before acting in an emergency or abnormal event

Before reacting to any accident or incident

slide21

MISTAKES IN GAS USE :

Preventive measures

  • RESPECT PRODUCT SPECIFIC CONNECTIONS designed to segregate product

IDENTIFY PIPES

INFORM users : Safety data sheets,

safety notices

NEVER IMPROVISE REPAIRS on installations

slide22

MISTAKES IN GAS USE :

Preventive measures

  • ALWAYS CHECK WHERE GAS RELEASES WILL GO:
    • the cold vapour from cryogenic liquids
    • vent exhausts
    • the outlets of safety valves and rupture discs
  • VERIFYperiodically the extraction efficiency
  • Install, if necessary, an ANALYSERwith alarm
  • VENTrooms where liquid gases are utilised or stored
slide23

SPACES WHERE INERTING IS CARRIED OUT :

    • to protect a product, or
    • to allow work, such as welding
  • EXPLAIN ASPHYXIATION DANGER
  • CREATE A PROCEDURE TO ENTER : WORK PERMIT
  • PREPARE FOR EMERGENCIES with appropriate equipment :
      • self contained breathing apparatus
      • oxygen meter
      • safety harness
      • ropes
      • winch
  • TRAIN PEOPLE to verify the equipment & procedures before issuing the permit

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

slide24

MEASURES FOR ENTERING A CONFINED SPACE

Before entering : assess risks and consequences to yourself and other

ABNORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES,

CONSIDER :

BEFORE AN ACCIDENT,

THINK ABOUT :

  • Any noise indicating a possible leak
  • Abnormal fluid flow
  • Pipe vents to a safe area
  • Look for leaks
  • Do not rely on a closed valve which may leak
  • Always use physical isolation methods, e.g. blind flanges

DON'T RUSH ... THINK !

slide25

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION:

ASPHYXIATION DANGER

  • If you hear a gas leak,
  • If you see cold vapours,
  • If you have symptoms of general malaise,
  • If a colleague lies unconscious

IMPLEMENT

the APPROPRIATE PROCEDURE

CONSIDERthe ASPHYXIATION RISK

LEAVE

the

DANGER AREA

25A

February 1997