(WRITTEN ACADEMIC ENGLISH) UNIVERSITY OF MUHAMMADIYAH PROF. DR. HAMKA By Dr. Tri Wintolo Apoko, M.Pd.
FEATURES OF ACADEMIC WRITING • It is formal in an impersonal or objective style (often using impersonal pronouns and phrases and passive verbs) • Cautious language is frequently used in reporting research and making claims • Vocabulary appropriate for particular academic context is used • It often contains references to other writer’s publications, sometimes including quotations
ACADEMIC STYLES • Written academic English will not normally contain: 1. Contractions 2. Hesitation Fillers 3. A number of phrasal Verbs 4. Personal pronouns • Academic styles should cover: 1. Passive verb tenses 2. Using introductory 3. Modal verbs
PARAPHRASING • By Changing the Vocabulary (Verbs/Nouns) • By Changing the Verb Form (from Active to Passive) • By Changing the Word Class (e.g. from verb to noun phrase) • By Synthesis (to combine two/more pieces of information from other writers)
She examined the difficulties that … . becomes She investigated the problems that … .
Johns (1987:115) analyzed the students’ difficulties and … . becomes The students’ difficulties were analyzed by Johns (1987:115) and … .
The reports were completed in May … . becomes The completion of the reports in May ensured that the students had time to revise before their examination
Johns and Dudley (1985:75) touched on the problems created by the lecturers’ use of colloquial words and phrases … This use of informal language was also noted by Jackson and Bilton (2006:115) who investigated geology lectures given in English …
Observes Has observed Observed Points out Remarks Says Affirms Argues Assumes Believes Claims Concludes Explains Finds Implies Maintains Suggests reports Adds Agrees Clarifies Comments Considers Contradicts Demonstrates Denies Describes Determines Disagrees Discusses Emphasizes Infers Maintains Recommends Rejects views REPORTING VERBS COMMONLY USED IN PARAPHRASES & SUMMARIES
CONCLUSIONS • It is needed to show that the writing is finished • A variety of ways in making a conclusion: In short, … In a word, … In brief, … To sum up, … In conclusion, … On the whole, … Altogether, … In all, … Or: Therefore/thus/on this basis/given this, it can/may be concluded/deduced/infered that …
EXAMPLE DEFINISI SINTAKSIS • Menurut Verhaar, sintaksis adalah tata bahasa yang membahas hubungan antar-kata dalam tuturan1. E. Sapir dalam R. Lado menyatakan bahwa tata bahasa sering kali diartikan sebagai definisi-definisi tradisional yang diberikan kepada bagian-bagian kalimat/tuturan (part of speech) yang tidak menunjukkan fakta2. • Hartmann dan Stork mengemukakan sintaksis adalah cabang tata bahasa mengenai studi perhimpunan kata-kata dalam kalimat-kalimat dan alat hubungan seperti tertib kata atau infleksi3. Mario Pei dan F. Gaynor menambahkan bahwa sistaksis adalah studi dan aturan-aturan dari hubungan kata-kata satu sama lainnya sebagai pernyataan gagasan dan sebagai bagian-bagain dari struktur-struktur kalimat; studi dan ilmu bangunan4. • Dari pernyataan yang dikemukakan di atas dapat dirumuskan bahwa sintaksis adalah studi perhimpunan dan hubungan antar kata, frasa, dan klausa dalam bentuk kalimat atau tuturan. 1 J.W.M. Verhaar. Asas-asas Linguistik Umum. (Yogyakarta: UGM Press, 1996), p. 161. 2 Robert Lado & Charlos C. Fries. Linguistik di Pelbagai Budaya : Linguistik Terapan untuk Guru Bahasa. Diterjemahkan oleh : Soenjono Dardjowidjojo. (Bandung : Penerbit Ganaco NV, 1979), p. 59. 3 R.R.K. Hartmann & F.C. Stork. Dictionary of Language and Linguistics (London : Applied Science Publishers Ltd, 1976), p. 231. 4 Mario Pei & Frank Gaynor. Dictionary of Linguistics. (New Jersey: Little Field, Adams & Co., 1975), p. 39.
QUOTATIONS & REFERENCING • They are included to show that you have read around the subject & are aware of what has been written about it • They are also used to demonstrate support for your own ideas, points of view, and findings, and to show examples or evidence • When you include quotations, they should be acknowledged with correct reference conventions and listed at the end of your writing
BASIC WAYS OF USING QUOTATIONS • Quotation Marks (inverted commas) They are put around the author’s actual words, which are then incorporated in the text. • The indented Quotation It starts further from the margin than the other lines, and it may be in a different type size or style; the quotations marks are usually omitted. This is normally used for longer quotations (three or more lines)
Academic writers need to be cautious in their claims. In this respect, vague language is important as “it allows claims to be made with due caution, modesty, and humility” (Hyland, 1994:241)
Jordan (1977: 240) also draws attention to the necessity for being careful: A feature of academic writing is the need to be cautious in one’s claims and statements. In other words, you may indicate your certainty and commitment in varying degrees.
REFERENCES • At the end of an essay, arranged in alphabetical order (A-Z) of the author’s surname or the name of organization. • If more than one author has the same surname, they should appear in alphabetical order of the initial of the first name. • If more than one reference is given by the same author, the earlier dated reference will appear first. • If two or more references by the same author appear in the same year, they will be labeled in sequence with letters (a, b, c, etc.) after the year
Beard, R.M. and J. Hartley (1984). Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. London: Harper and Row. • Leech, G. and J. Svartvik (2002) A Communicative Grammar of English. Essex: Pearson Education Limited. • Northedge, A. (1990). The Good Study Guide. Milton Keynes: The Open University • Smith, F. (1982). Writing and the Writer. London: Heinenmann Educational.
FOOTNOTES • A Footnote is a note at the bottom (or foot) of a page in a book or journals • It is used to explain a word or other item, or to add some special information or a reference.
FOOTNOTE George Leech and John Svartvik (2002). A Communicative Grammar of English. Essex: Pearson Education Limited., p. 56 REFERENCE Leech, G. and J. Svartvik (2002). A Communicative Grammar of English. Essex: Pearson Education Limited.