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Orthopedics and Neurology Evaluation of the Shoulder. James J. Lehman, DC, MBA, DABCO University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic. Shoulder Anatomy “Shoulder Girdle”. Consists of several bony joints, or “articulations” Connects the upper limbs to the rest of the skeleton

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Orthopedics and Neurology Evaluation of the Shoulder


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    1. Orthopedics and NeurologyEvaluation of the Shoulder James J. Lehman, DC, MBA, DABCO University of Bridgeport College of Chiropractic

    2. Shoulder Anatomy“Shoulder Girdle” • Consists of several bony joints, or “articulations” • Connects the upper limbs to the rest of the skeleton • Provides a large ROM

    3. Shoulder AnatomyOsseous structures of the shoulder girdle • Clavicle • Scapula • Humerus.

    4. Shoulder Function • Adequate shoulder ROM is essential for many ADL • This is the most important function of the shoulder

    5. S.I.T. MusclesPosterior Rotator Cuff Muscles • Supraspinatus • Infraspinatus • Teres minor

    6. Rotator Cuff Muscles • Supraspinatus • Infraspinatus • Teres minor • Subscapularis

    7. Shoulder Ranges of Motion • What are the six ranges of motion for the shoulder?

    8. Active Shoulder MotionsAROM evaluation • Flexion • Extension • Abduction • Adduction • Internal and external rotation

    9. Goniometric Measurements in Degrees • Flexion = 161-173 • Extension = 52-72 • Int Rotation = 63-75 • Ext Rotation = 95-113 • Abduction = 177-191 • Adduction = 75 or greater from neutral

    10. Active Internal and External Rotation

    11. Rick AnkielSt. Louis Cardinals • What would cause a pitcher’s shoulder ROM to be reduced?

    12. James ParrAtlanta Braves Draftee • What would cause a pitcher’s shoulder ROM to be increased?

    13. Passive Shoulder MotionsPROM • May produce pain with bursitis, fracture, dislocation, instability, or sprain • Identify the painful tissue

    14. Passive Shoulder MotionsInspection of PROM • Pain • Dislocation • Crepitus • Clicking • Symmetrical ROM

    15. Resistive Shoulder MotionsRROM evaluation • Differentiate with O’Donoghue’s • Identify tissue • Rule in or out strain/sprain

    16. HistoryThe patient should be asked about shoulder pain: • Instability • Stiffness • Locking • Catching • Swelling • http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000515/3079.html

    17. HistoryStiffness or loss of motion may be the major symptom in patients with: • Adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder) • Dislocation • Glenohumeral joint arthritis • http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000515/3079.html

    18. History • Pain with throwing (such as pitching a baseball) suggests anterior glenohumeral instability • Patients who complain of generalized joint laxity often have multidirectional glenohumeral instability. • http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000515/3079.html

    19. Supraspinatus TendonitisSigns and symptoms • Anterolateral shoulder pain • Pain with sleeping on affected shoulder • Stiffness & catching • Active & passive pain • Local tenderness

    20. Supraspinatus TendonitisCauses • Trauma • Overuse (overhead) • Faulty body mechanics with athletic activity

    21. Supraspinatus TendonitisSigns • Painful arc with abduction (60-90) • Limited AROM • Painful PROM

    22. Painful Arc of Abduction • Why does the pain occur with 60-90 degrees of abduction? • Why is the AROM limited? • Why is the PROM painful?

    23. Shoulder Pain with Abduction • Why does the pain occur within the arc of abduction?

    24. Impingement • Why is the AROM painful?

    25. Impingement • Local pain with pressing of supraspinatus tendon against coracoacromial ligament

    26. Shoulder BursitisCauses • Repetitive minor trauma or overuse • Acute injury • Poor body mechanics

    27. Bracing for Shoulder Bursitis with Instability • May be utilized with shoulder conditions, which require reduced motion.

    28. Adhesive Capsulitis of Shoulder • A global decrease in shoulder range of motion • Actual adherence of the shoulder capsule to the humeral head

    29. Adhesive Capsulitis • A syndrome defined as idiopathic restriction of shoulder movement (AROM and PROM) • Usually painful at onset.

    30. Adhesive CapsulitisTreatment • Recovery is usually spontaneous, • Treatment with intra-articular corticosteroids • Gentle but persistent chiropractic therapy may provide a better outcome, resulting in little functional compromise.

    31. How Would You Treat Adhesive Capsulitis? • Immobilization? • Ice/heat? • Manipulation? • Exercises? • Ultrasound? • Electrical Stimulation?

    32. Rotator Cuff Tear/Strain • Why is the PROM painful?

    33. Evaluation and Management Rotator cuff strain • How do you evaluate and manage rotator cuff strain and shoulder pain?

    34. Supraspinatus Stress Test • Differentiate deltoid muscle strain from supraspinatus tendon/muscle strain

    35. Apley Scratch Test

    36. Apley Scratch TestRationale • Stresses rotator cuff tendons • Supraspinatus is most often involved • Exacerbation of pain might indicate degenerative tendonitis

    37. Hawkins-Kennedy ImpingementSupraspinatus tendonitis rationale • Local pain with pressing of supraspinatus tendon against coracoacromial ligament

    38. Neer Impingement Test • Shoulder pain and look of apprehension indicates a positive sign for overuse of supraspinatus tendon • Most common cause

    39. Neer Impingement Sign • Approximates greater tuberosity of humerus and anterior inferior border of acromion

    40. Bicipital Tendonitis • Inflammatory condition of the long head of the biceps tendon • Inserts into the superior aspect of the labrum of the glenohumeral joint • Passes through the humeral bicipital groove

    41. Bicipital TendonitisFrequently diagnosed • In association with rotator cuff disease • Secondary to intra-articular pathology such as labral tears

    42. Bicipital TendonitisCommonly occurs with overhead athletes • Baseball players • Swimmers • Tennis players

    43. Bicipital Tendonitis • Why do overhead athletes experience this condition?

    44. Bicipital Tendonitis • Associated with rotator cuff injuries, bursitis, and impingement syndromes

    45. How do you manage bicipital tendonitis? • Laboratory studies? • Ice or heat? • Manipulation of immobilization? • Exercises or stretching?

    46. Bicipital TendonitisWhy do overhead athletes experience this condition? • Excessive external rotation/abduction • Repetitive trauma • Lack of time for recuperation

    47. Bicipital Tendonitis • What type of occupations or activities of daily living might cause this condition? • How would you treat the patient with bicipital tendonitis?

    48. Bicipital TendonitisCauses Full humeral head abduction places the attachment area of the rotator cuff and biceps tendon under the acromion.

    49. Bicipital TendonitisCauses External rotation of the humerus at or above the horizontal level compresses these suprahumeral structures into the anterior acromion.