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Monitoring Your Landfill Chapter 08. Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection Division of Compliance Assistance 300 Fair Oaks Lane • Frankfort, KY 40601 Phone: 502.564.0323 • 800.926.8111 • Fax: 502.564.9720 Email: [email protected] • Website:

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monitoring your landfill chapter 08

Monitoring Your LandfillChapter 08

Kentucky Department of Environmental Protection

Division of Compliance Assistance

300 Fair Oaks Lane • Frankfort, KY 40601

Phone: 502.564.0323 • 800.926.8111 • Fax: 502.564.9720

Email: [email protected] • Website:

What are the groundwater and surface water monitoringproceduresassociated with each landfill type?
chapter 08 general objective
Chapter 08 General Objective

Explain the monitoring procedures associated with each type of landfill (with emphasis on groundwater and surface water monitoring).

chapter 08 specific objectives
Chapter 08 Specific Objectives
  • Understand Environmental Performance Standards (EPS).
  • Explain the purpose and the requirements of surface water and groundwater monitoring.
  • Know the importance of proper sampling and the considerations that should be given to surface water and groundwater.
chapter 08 specific objectives1
Chapter 08 Specific Objectives
  • Understand Data Submittal Requirements.
  • Comprehend the assessment monitoring and corrective action process.
  • Identify the equipmentused to test for explosive gas.
  • Understand the recordkeeping system.
environmental monitoring
Environmental Monitoring
  • All waste sites and facilities must comply FULLY with the EPS in . . .
    • 401 KAR 47:030 (for solid waste sites)
    • 401 KAR 30:031 (for special waste sites)
environmental monitoring1
Environmental Monitoring
  • Environmental Performance Standards (EPS)
    • Pollutantsshall NOT be discharged into surface waters of the Commonwealth
    • Groundwater shall NOT be contaminated beyond a point of compliance for the facility in excess of drinking water Maximum Contaminant levels (MCLs)
    • Concentrations of explosive gas in facility structures shall not exceed 25%LEL for methane and shall not exceed 100% LEL for methane at the facility property line.
environmental monitoring2
Environmental Monitoring

Monitoring Plans Included in Permit Applications

  • Surface Water Monitoring Plans
  • Groundwater Monitoring Plans
  • Methane Monitoring Plans

Landfill Type

  • Special Waste
  • Residual
  • CDD
  • Contained

Each facility MUST BE MONITORED in accordance with the applicable REGULATIONS, APPROVED PLANS and the PERMIT.

surface water monitoring
Surface Water Monitoring
  • Surface water sampling
    • Allows for verification that leachate is NOT entering surface water
    • Facility operations are NOT otherwise adversely impacting surface water
  • Surface water monitoring points must be located to characterize the quality of water unaffected by the landfill and water that leaves the landfill in surface drainage.
surface water monitoring1
Surface Water Monitoring
  • EVERY landfill should have
    • AT LEAST one upstream (background) monitoring point
    • AT LEAST one downstream (compliance) monitoring point
surface water monitoring2
Surface Water Monitoring
  • UpstreamMonitoring Point
    • Upstream from the landfill OR
    • Outside of the effects of waste placement for use in background comparisons
    • May be a SURFACE STREAM
surface water monitoring3
Surface Water Monitoring
  • DownstreamMonitoring Point
    • Located on the inlet side (landfill’s surface water run-off ditches) of the surface water sediment structures to monitor the landfill runoff water BEFORE it enters the sediment ponds
    • Can be done in the RECEIVING STREAM
surface water monitoring4
Surface Water Monitoring
  • Grab Samples
    • Collected at previously specified points approved by the Division, on a QUARTERLY BASIS
    • Parameters
      • Chlorides
      • Sodium
      • Sulfate
      • Total Organic Carbon (TOC)
      • Iron
      • Specific Conductance
      • pH
      • Solids (TSS, TDS, TS) Chemical Oxygen Demand
      • Other parameters in the permit
surface water monitoring5
Surface Water Monitoring
  • All facilities with storm water runoff structures and point-source discharges are required to have a KPDES permit from the Division of Water.
  • Documentation that the application has been submitted will be required during the Division of Waste Management permitting process.
groundwater monitoring
Groundwater Monitoring
  • The groundwater monitoring system approved within the application is meant to allow an accurate assessment of the groundwater quality and characterize groundwater flow.
groundwater monitoring1
Groundwater Monitoring
  • Residual, CDD, Contained Landfills
    • must have at least 1 background well hydraulically upgradient from the disposal area
    • must have at least 3 downgradient monitoring wells with the Division’s approval
  • Special Waste Landfills
    • must have at least 1background well hydraulically upgradient from the disposal area
    • must have at least 2downgradient monitoring wells with the Division’s approval
groundwater monitoring2
Groundwater Monitoring
  • The Division may approve springs in addition to, or instead of downgradient wells.
  • An alternate monitoring plan may be used if approved by the Division.
groundwater characterization
Groundwater Characterization
  • 401 KAR 47:180
  • A groundwater characterization shall contain
    • Thechemical characteristics of the uppermost aquifer down to and including the lowest aquifer that may be affected by the site or facility.
    • Results of analysis of at least two (2) samples of groundwater collected at least 30 days apart from the site before waste placement for the parameters listed in 401 KAR 48:300, Section 10.
  • Special Waste Landfills must perform groundwater characterization according to 401 KAR 45:160, Section 7.
groundwater characterization1
Groundwater Characterization
  • Improved background characterization
    • Includes two years of quarterly data, or

eight samples per well, before waste disposal begins

  • More monitoring data collected prior to waste placement can facilitate the use of an intra-well statistical method, which may reduce false positives that occur due to geologicaland chemical variability between upgradient and downgradient wells.
groundwater monitoring3
Groundwater Monitoring
  • Groundwater sampling intervals and parametersdiffer for each type of solid or special waste site or facility
  • Residual landfills monitor quarterlyfor parameters determined by the Division based upon the chemical analysis of the waste to be disposed (401 KAR 48:300 section 11(4))
groundwater monitoring4
Groundwater Monitoring

Residualor Special Waste Landfill applicants should do an industrial waste analyses for the chemical parameters based on a review of raw materials feed dataor an analyses of the chemicals from one of the following:

  • The “Long List” of parameters for contained landfill assessment or characterization monitoring available in 48:300, Section 10(3)(b),
  • The Hazardous Constituent List in 40 CFR 261 Appendix IX,
  • The parameters included in the NPDES Priority Pollutant List
groundwater monitoring5
Groundwater Monitoring

Detected chemical constituents could become the characterizationor assessment list while the top two or three concentrated metals or organicswith common indicators could make up the detectionor quarterly (or, semi-annual for special waste) monitoring.

data submittal
Data Submittal

All lab results must be submitted, within 60 days of the sampling eventor 15 days after receipt of the statistical analysis–whichever is sooner.

data submittal1
Data Submittal
  • Statistical analysis MUST be performed SEPARATELY for EACH
    • Parameter
    • Well
    • Sampling Event
  • Used to determine if there has been a significant increase over background values for each parameter that lacks an MCL
data submittal2
Data Submittal

If laboratory delays are encountered, a letterrequesting an extension must be sent to the Solid Waste Branch, Permit Review Section

mcl or statistical exceedance
MCL or Statistical Exceedance
  • Owner or Operator MUST notify Division within 48 hours of analysis receipt
  • Arrange to split confirmation samples within 10 days ofreceipt of analyses
  • Drinking Water Supply
    • IF probable contamination source is landfill
    • Facility shall provide alternative drinking water supplies to all affected parties within 24 hours of the notification of the Division
assessment plan
Assessment Plan
  • If the confirmation sampling verifiesthat an exceedance has occurred, the landfill must prepare a groundwater assessment plan, and submit it to the Division within 30 days.
  • Assessment Plan must specifythe way in which the landfill intends to determine:
    • the existence, quality, quantity, areal extent, and depth of groundwater degradation, and
    • the rateand directionof migration of contaminants in the groundwater.
assessment plan1
Assessment Plan
  • The assessment plan must be implemented within 60 days of its approval by the Division.
  • If the Division determines that the assessment plan is inadequate, it can either
    • Issue a Notice of Deficiency (NOD) or
    • Modify the plan and approve it as modified.
  • The Division may require abatement measures prior to the approval of the assessment plan.
assessment report
Assessment Report
  • Within 90 days of the implementation of the assessment plan, the landfill must submit an assessment report
    • Summary of the data collected in the assessment investigation,
    • Analysis of the data, and
    • Recommendations on the necessity of abatement.
assessment report1
Assessment Report
  • Within 15 days of approval of the groundwater assessment report, the Cabinet prepares a public notice for the owner or operator to advertise in the newspaper.
  • The notice must summarize the findings of the report, including proposed remedies, and allow for a 30-day comment period.
  • 401 KAR 48:300, Section 8
corrective action plan
Corrective Action Plan
  • Within 120 days of the approval of the assessment report, the landfill must submit a corrective action plan.
  • The methodsthat will be used to abate the groundwater contamination
  • The actionsthat will prevent further releases from the facility
  • The processby which affected water supplies will be restored or replaced; and
  • Any other measures necessary to protect human health and environment
corrective action plan1
Corrective Action Plan
  • Corrective action must be continued
    • until parameters with primary MCLs are lowered below MCLs, and
    • until parameters without primary MCLs are returned below statistical background
    • 401 KAR 48:300, Section 8(14)
sample collection
Sample Collection

ALL landfills that are required to monitor groundwater and surfacewater must have samples collected using proper and permitted collection procedures.

The landfill manager must ensure proper collection techniques are followed so that the sample is NOT contaminated.

landfill gas contamination of groundwater
Landfill Gas Contamination of Groundwater
  • Landfill gas consists of over 95% methane and carbon dioxide, and less than 5% trace gases, and can contribute to significant groundwater and surface water degradation.
landfill gas contamination of groundwater1
Landfill Gas Contamination of Groundwater
  • Trace gases generally make up less than 5% of landfill gas and include: hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, carbon monoxide, nitrogen, mercury, vinyl chloride, 1,1-dichloroethane, dichlorodifluoromethane, trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, methylene chloride, and 1,1-tetrachloroethane.
landfill gas contamination of groundwater2
Landfill Gas Contamination of Groundwater
  • Changes REDOX, depletes DO; microbes then rely on oxides for oxygen, increasing Mn and Fe in water.
  • Lowers pH by CO2 forming carbonic acid, which is then offset by an alkalinity increase and the leaching of metals and other cations from the geological materials at the site.
  • Partitions VOCs to the water.
documentation of construction requirements
Documentation of Construction Requirements

Each landfill facility is REQUIRED to

    • Liners
    • Hydrologic Systems
      • Surface Water Drainage Devices
      • Groundwater Well Installation
    • Leachate Collection System
    • Final Cap
documentation of construction requirements1
Documentation of Construction Requirements

The owner’s qualified representativemust SUBMIT a CERTIFICATION REPORTensuring that the facility was constructed in accordance withapproved plans immediately upon completion.

documentation of construction requirements2
Documentation of Construction Requirements
    • Daily
    • Interim
    • Long-term
    • Final
  • 401 KAR 48:170, 48:060, 48:080, 45:110
  • Documentation maintained onsite for operators, managers, inspectors, and for compiling quarterly reports
documentation of construction requirements3
Documentation of Construction Requirements
    • Quantity and Concentration Removed from Site
    • Disposal Location
    • Method of Disposal
    • Contact Wastewater Treatment Plant Owner for assistance in selecting appropriate parameters when applying for permit
    • Groundwater Characterization in 401 KAR 48:300, Section 10
additional reporting requirements
Additional Reporting Requirements
  • ContainedandCDD landfills
    • Must weigh ALL waste entering the landfill for disposal
    • Must keep records on the
      • source(county and state of origination)
      • quantity(in tons) of all wastes received
  • Ownersof contained landfills
    • Must record the disposal locations for
      • All spill residues
      • Limited quantity generator wastes
    • Unless a variance has been obtained from the Division
quarterly data submittal
Quarterly Data Submittal

401 KAR 47:190, Section 8

  • Requires Quarterly Reports
  • Submitted to the Division of Waste Management
  • Documents compliance with recordkeeping requirements
  • Maintained onsite for at least THREE YEARS (3) for review by the regional inspector
quarterly data submittal1
Quarterly Data Submittal
  • First Quarter Reports
    • January, February and March
    • Reports Due April 15.
  • Second Quarter Reports
    • April, May and June
    • Reports Due July 15.
  • Third Quarter Reports
    • July, August and September
    • Reports Due October 15.
  • Fourth Quarter Reports
    • October, November and December
    • Reports Due January 15.

Reports are to be submitted on forms approved by the Division on the following schedule:

quarterly data submittal2
Quarterly Data Submittal

The owner or operator shall maintain records from all groundwater monitoring wells and associated groundwater surface elevations, for the active life of the facility, and for the post-closure care period as well.

quarterly data submittal3
Quarterly Data Submittal
  • Owners or Operators normally submit construction reports as produced, instead of waiting for the quarterly report deadlines.
  • There is no need to duplicate the report when the remainder of environmental monitoring comes due.